Extensive characterization of a family of efficient three-qubit gates at the coherence limit

  1. Christopher W. Warren,
  2. Jorge Fernández-Pendás,
  3. Shahnawaz Ahmed,
  4. Tahereh Abad,
  5. Andreas Bengtsson,
  6. Janka Biznárová,
  7. Kamanasish Debnath,
  8. Xiu Gu,
  9. Christian Križan,
  10. Amr Osman,
  11. Anita Fadavi Roudsari,
  12. Per Delsing,
  13. Göran Johansson,
  14. Anton Frisk Kockum,
  15. Giovanna Tancredi,
  16. and Jonas Bylander
While all quantum algorithms can be expressed in terms of single-qubit and two-qubit gates, more expressive gate sets can help reduce the algorithmic depth. This is important in the
presence of gate errors, especially those due to decoherence. Using superconducting qubits, we have implemented a three-qubit gate by simultaneously applying two-qubit operations, thereby realizing a three-body interaction. This method straightforwardly extends to other quantum hardware architectures, requires only a „firmware“ upgrade to implement, and is faster than its constituent two-qubit gates. The three-qubit gate represents an entire family of operations, creating flexibility in quantum-circuit compilation. We demonstrate a gate fidelity of 97.90%, which is near the coherence limit of our device. We then generate two classes of entangled states, the GHZ and W states, by applying the new gate only once; in comparison, decompositions into the standard gate set would have a two-qubit gate depth of two and three, respectively. Finally, we combine characterization methods and analyze the experimental and statistical errors on the fidelity of the gates and of the target states.

Building Blocks of a Flip-Chip Integrated Superconducting Quantum Processor

  1. Sandoko Kosen,
  2. Hang-Xi Li,
  3. Marcus Rommel,
  4. Daryoush Shiri,
  5. Christopher Warren,
  6. Leif Grönberg,
  7. Jaakko Salonen,
  8. Tahereh Abad,
  9. Janka Biznárová,
  10. Marco Caputo,
  11. Liangyu Chen,
  12. Kestutis Grigoras,
  13. Göran Johansson,
  14. Anton Frisk Kockum,
  15. Christian Križan,
  16. Daniel Pérez Lozano,
  17. Graham Norris,
  18. Amr Osman,
  19. Jorge Fernández-Pendás,
  20. Anita Fadavi Roudsari,
  21. Giovanna Tancredi,
  22. Andreas Wallraff,
  23. Christopher Eichler,
  24. Joonas Govenius,
  25. and Jonas Bylander
We have integrated single and coupled superconducting transmon qubits into flip-chip modules. Each module consists of two chips – one quantum chip and one control chip –
that are bump-bonded together. We demonstrate time-averaged coherence times exceeding 90μs, single-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99.9%, and two-qubit gate fidelities above 98.6%. We also present device design methods and discuss the sensitivity of device parameters to variation in interchip spacing. Notably, the additional flip-chip fabrication steps do not degrade the qubit performance compared to our baseline state-of-the-art in single-chip, planar circuits. This integration technique can be extended to the realisation of quantum processors accommodating hundreds of qubits in one module as it offers adequate input/output wiring access to all qubits and couplers.

Quantum efficiency, purity and stability of a tunable, narrowband microwave single-photon source

  1. Yong Lu,
  2. Andreas Bengtsson,
  3. Jonathan J. Burnett,
  4. Baladitya Suri,
  5. Sankar Raman Sathyamoorthy,
  6. Hampus Renberg Nilsson,
  7. Marco Scigliuzzo,
  8. Jonas Bylander,
  9. Göran Johansson,
  10. and Per Delsing
We demonstrate an on-demand source of microwave single photons with 71–99% intrinsic quantum efficiency. The source is narrowband (300unite{kHz}) and tuneable over a 600 MHz
range around 5.2 GHz. Such a device is an important element in numerous quantum technologies and applications. The device consists of a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to the open end of a transmission line. A π-pulse excites the qubit, which subsequently rapidly emits a single photon into the transmission line. A cancellation pulse then suppresses the reflected π-pulse by 33.5 dB, resulting in 0.005 photons leaking into the photon emission channel. We verify strong antibunching of the emitted photon field and determine its Wigner function. Non-radiative decay and 1/f flux noise both affect the quantum efficiency. We also study the device stability over time and identify uncorrelated discrete jumps of the pure dephasing rate at different qubit frequencies on a time scale of hours, which we attribute to independent two-level system defects in the device dielectrics, dispersively coupled to the qubit.

Transmon in a semi-infinite high-impedance transmission line — appearance of cavity modes and Rabi oscillations

  1. Emely Wiegand,
  2. Benjamin Rousseaux,
  3. and Göran Johansson
In this letter, we investigate the dynamics of a single superconducting artificial atom capacitively coupled to a transmission line with a characteristic impedance comparable or larger
than the quantum resistance. In this regime, microwaves are reflected from the atom also at frequencies far from the atom’s transition frequency. Adding a single mirror in the transmission line then creates cavity modes between the atom and the mirror. Investigating the spontaneous emission from the atom, we then find Rabi oscillations, where the energy oscillates between the atom and one of the cavity modes.

Listening to the quantum vacuum: a perspective on the dynamical Casimir effect

  1. Gheorghe Sorin Paraoanu,
  2. and Göran Johansson
Modern quantum field theory has offered us a very intriguing picture of empty space. The vacuum state is no longer an inert, motionless state. We are instead dealing with an entity
teeming with fluctuations that continuously produce virtual particles popping in and out of existence. The dynamical Casimir effect is a paradigmatic phenomenon, whereby these particles are converted into real particles (photons) by changing the boundary conditions of the field. It was predicted 50 years ago by Gerald T. Moore and it took more than 40 years until the first experimental verification.

Universal Gate Set for Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation with Microwave Circuits

  1. Timo Hillmann,
  2. Fernando Quijandría,
  3. Göran Johansson,
  4. Alessandro Ferraro,
  5. Simone Gasparinetti,
  6. and Giulia Ferrini
We provide an explicit construction of a universal gate set for continuous-variable quantum computation with microwave circuits. Such a universal set has been first proposed in quantum-optical
setups, but its experimental implementation has remained elusive in that domain due to the difficulties in engineering strong nonlinearities. Here, we show that a realistic microwave architecture allows to overcome this difficulty. As an application, we show that this architecture allows to generate a cubic phase state with an experimentally feasible procedure. This work highlights a practical advantage of microwave circuits with respect to optical systems for the purpose of engineering non-Gaussian states, and opens the quest for continuous-variable algorithms based on a few repetitions of elementary gates from the continuous-variable universal set.

Quantum approximate optimization of the exact-cover problem on a superconducting quantum processor

  1. Andreas Bengtsson,
  2. Pontus Vikstål,
  3. Christopher Warren,
  4. Marika Svensson,
  5. Xiu Gu,
  6. Anton Frisk Kockum,
  7. Philip Krantz,
  8. Christian Križan,
  9. Daryoush Shiri,
  10. Ida-Maria Svensson,
  11. Giovanna Tancredi,
  12. Göran Johansson,
  13. Per Delsing,
  14. Giulia Ferrini,
  15. and Jonas Bylander
Present-day, noisy, small or intermediate-scale quantum processors—although far from fault-tolerant—support the execution of heuristic quantum algorithms, which might enable
a quantum advantage, for example, when applied to combinatorial optimization problems. On small-scale quantum processors, validations of such algorithms serve as important technology demonstrators. We implement the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) on our hardware platform, consisting of two transmon qubits and one parametrically modulated coupler. We solve small instances of the NP-complete exact-cover problem, with 96.6\% success probability, by iterating the algorithm up to level two.

Characterizing decoherence rates of a superconducting qubit by direct microwave scattering

  1. Yong Lu,
  2. Andreas Bengtsson,
  3. Jonathan J. Burnett,
  4. Emely Wiegand,
  5. Baladitya Suri,
  6. Philip Krantz,
  7. Anita Fadavi Roudsari,
  8. Anton Frisk Kockum,
  9. Simone Gasparinetti,
  10. Göran Johansson,
  11. and Per Delsing
We experimentally investigate a superconducting qubit coupled to the end of an open transmission line, in a regime where the qubit decay rates to the transmission line and to its own
environment are comparable. We perform measurements of coherent and incoherent scattering, on- and off-resonant fluorescence, and time-resolved dynamics to determine the decay and decoherence rates of the qubit. In particular, these measurements let us discriminate between non-radiative decay and pure dephasing. We combine and contrast results across all methods and find consistent values for the extracted rates. The results show that the pure dephasing rate is one order of magnitude smaller than the non-radiative decay rate for our qubit. Our results indicate a pathway to benchmark decoherence rates of superconducting qubits in a resonator-free setting.

Simulating moving cavities in superconducting circuits

  1. Stefano Bosco,
  2. Joel Lindkvist,
  3. and Göran Johansson
We theoretically investigate the simulation of moving cavities in a superconducting circuit setup. In particular, we consider a recently proposed experimental scenario where the phase
of the cavity field is used as a moving clock. By computing the error made when simulating the cavity trajectory with SQUIDs, we identify parameter regimes where the correspondence holds, and where time dilation, as well as corrections due to clock size and particle creation coefficients, are observable. These findings may serve as a guideline when performing experiments on simulation of moving cavities in superconducting circuits.

Cavity-free vacuum-Rabi splitting in circuit quantum acoustodynamics

  1. Andreas Ask,
  2. Maria Ekström,
  3. Per Delsing,
  4. and Göran Johansson
Artificial atoms coupled to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have played a crucial role in the recent development of circuit quantum acoustodynamics (cQAD). In this paper, we have investigated
the interaction of an artificial atom and SAWs beyond the weak coupling regime, focusing on the role of the interdigital transducer (IDT) that enables the coupling. We find a parameter regime in which the IDT acts as a cavity for the atom, rather than an antenna. In other words, the atom forms its own cavity. Similar to an atom coupled to an explicit cavity, this regime is characterized by vacuum-Rabi splitting, as the atom hybridizes with the phononic vacuum inside the IDT. This hybridization is possible because of the interdigitated coupling, which has a large spatial extension, and the slow propagation speed of SAWs. We work out a criterion for entering this regime from a model based on standard circuit-quantization techniques, taking only material parameters as inputs. Most notably, we find this regime hard to avoid for an atom on top of a strong piezoelectric material, such as LiNbO3. The SAW-coupled atom on top of LiNbO3 can thus be regarded as an atom-cavity-bath system. On weaker piezoelectric materials, the number of IDT electrodes need to be large in order to reach this regime.