I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

02
Dez
2022

# Initial experimental results on a superconducting-qubit reset based on photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling

We present here our recent results on qubit reset scheme based on a quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR). In particular, we use the photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling through a superconductor–insulator–normal-metal–insulator–superconductor

junction to controllably decrease the energy relaxation time of the qubit during the QCR operation. In our experiment, we use a transmon qubit with dispersive readout. The QCR is capacitively coupled to the qubit through its normal-metal island. We employ rapid, square-shaped QCR control voltage pulses with durations in the range of 2–350 ns and a variety of amplitudes to optimize the reset time and fidelity. Consequently, we reach a qubit ground-state probability of roughly 97% with 80-ns pulses starting from the first excited state. The qubit state probability is extracted from averaged readout signal, where the calibration is based of the Rabi oscillations, thus not distinguishing the residual thermal population of the qubit.

# Calibration of Drive Non-Linearity for Arbitrary-Angle Single-Qubit Gates Using Error Amplification

The ability to execute high-fidelity operations is crucial to scaling up quantum devices to large numbers of qubits. However, signal distortions originating from non-linear components

in the control lines can limit the performance of single-qubit gates. In this work, we use a measurement based on error amplification to characterize and correct the small single-qubit rotation errors originating from the non-linear scaling of the qubit drive rate with the amplitude of the programmed pulse. With our hardware, and for a 15-ns pulse, the rotation angles deviate by up to several degrees from a linear model. Using purity benchmarking, we find that control errors reach 2×10−4, which accounts for half of the total gate error. Using cross-entropy benchmarking, we demonstrate arbitrary-angle single-qubit gates with coherence-limited errors of 2×10−4 and leakage below 6×10−5. While the exact magnitude of these errors is specific to our setup, the presented method is applicable to any source of non-linearity. Our work shows that the non-linearity of qubit drive line components imposes a limit on the fidelity of single-qubit gates, independent of improvements in coherence times, circuit design, or leakage mitigation when not corrected for.

30
Nov
2022

# Qubit-controlled directional edge states in waveguide QED

We propose an in-situ tunable chiral quantum system, composed of a quantum emitter coupled to a waveguide based on the Rice-Mele model (where we modulate both the on-site potentials

and tunnel couplings between sites in the waveguide array). Specifically, we show that the chirality of photonic bound state, that emerges in the bandgap of the waveguide, depends only on the energy of the qubit; a parameter that is easy to tune in many artificial atoms. In contrast to previous proposals that have either shown imperfect chirality or fixed directionality, our waveguide QED scheme achieves both perfect chirality and the capability to switch the directionality on demand with just one tunable element in the device. We also show that our model is easy to implement in both state-of-the-art superconducting circuit and quantum dot architectures. The results show technological promise in creating long-range couplers between qubits while maintaining, in principle, zero crosstalk.

26
Nov
2022

# Quantum emulation of the transient dynamics in the multistate Landau-Zener model

Quantum simulation is one of the most promising near term applications of quantum computing. Especially, systems with a large Hilbert space are hard to solve for classical computers

and thus ideal targets for a simulation with quantum hardware. In this work, we study experimentally the transient dynamics in the multistate Landau-Zener model as a function of the Landau-Zener velocity. The underlying Hamiltonian is emulated by superconducting quantum circuit, where a tunable transmon qubit is coupled to a bosonic mode ensemble comprising four lumped element microwave resonators. We investigate the model for different initial states: Due to our circuit design, we are not limited to merely exciting the qubit, but can also pump the harmonic modes via a dedicated drive line. Here, the nature of the transient dynamics depends on the average photon number in the excited resonator. The greater effective coupling strength between qubit and higher Fock states results in a quasi-adiabatic transition, where coherent quantum oscillations are suppressed without the introduction of additional loss channels. Our experiments pave the way for more complex simulations with qubits coupled to an engineered bosonic mode spectrum.

25
Nov
2022

# Shape optimization of superconducting transmon qubit for low surface dielectric loss

Surface dielectric loss of superconducting transmon qubit is believed as one of the dominant sources of decoherence. Reducing surface dielectric loss of superconducting qubit is known

to be a great challenge for achieving high quality factor and a long relaxation time (T1). Changing the geometry of capacitor pads and junction wire of transmon qubit makes it possible to engineer the surface dielectric loss. In this paper, we present the shape optimization approach for reducing Surface dielectric loss in transmon qubit. The capacitor pad and junction wire of the transmon qubit are shaped as spline curves and optimized through the combination of the finite-element method and global optimization algorithm. Then, we compared the surface participation ratio, which represents the portion of electric energy stored in each dielectric layer and proportional to two-level system (TLS) loss, of optimized structure and existing geometries to show the effectiveness of our approach. The result suggests that the participation ratio of capacitor pad, and junction wire can be reduced by 16% and 26% compared to previous designs through shape optimization, while overall footprint and anharmonicity maintain acceptable value. As a result, the TLS-limited quality factor and corresponding T1 were increased by approximately 21.6%.

24
Nov
2022

# Disentangling the sources of ionizing radiation in superconducting qubits

Radioactivity was recently discovered as a source of decoherence and correlated errors for the real-world implementation of superconducting quantum processors. In this work, we measure

levels of radioactivity present in a typical laboratory environment (from muons, neutrons, and gamma’s emitted by naturally occurring radioactive isotopes) and in the most commonly used materials for the assembly and operation of state-of-the-art superconducting qubits. We develop a GEANT-4 based simulation to predict the rate of impacts and the amount of energy released in a qubit chip from each of the mentioned sources. We finally propose mitigation strategies for the operation of next-generation qubits in a radio-pure environment.

21
Nov
2022

# Programmable Heisenberg interactions between Floquet qubits

The fundamental trade-off between robustness and tunability is a central challenge in the pursuit of quantum simulation and fault-tolerant quantum computation. In particular, many emerging

quantum architectures are designed to achieve high coherence at the expense of having fixed spectra and consequently limited types of controllable interactions. Here, by adiabatically transforming fixed-frequency superconducting circuits into modifiable Floquet qubits, we demonstrate an XXZ Heisenberg interaction with fully adjustable anisotropy. This interaction model is on one hand the basis for many-body quantum simulation of spin systems, and on the other hand the primitive for an expressive quantum gate set. To illustrate the robustness and versatility of our Floquet protocol, we tailor the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and implement two-qubit iSWAP, CZ, and SWAP gates with estimated fidelities of 99.32(3)%, 99.72(2)%, and 98.93(5)%, respectively. In addition, we implement a Heisenberg interaction between higher energy levels and employ it to construct a three-qubit CCZ gate with a fidelity of 96.18(5)%. Importantly, the protocol is applicable to various fixed-frequency high-coherence platforms, thereby unlocking a suite of essential interactions for high-performance quantum information processing. From a broader perspective, our work provides compelling avenues for future exploration of quantum electrodynamics and optimal control using the Floquet framework.

20
Nov
2022

# Theory of superconducting qubits beyond the lumped element approximation

In the design and investigation of superconducting qubits and related devices, a lumped element circuit model is the standard theoretical approach. However, many important physical

questions lie beyond the scope of this approach, such as the consequences of very strong or otherwise unconventional Josephson junctions, the properties of small qubit devices, and the number of entangled electrons in superconducting Schrodinger cats. By performing gauge transformations on self-consistent solutions of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we develop here a formalism that is capable of addressing these questions. We then apply the formalism to a charge qubit and to an RF squid qubit. This theory provides a promising tool to accompany the remarkable experimental achievements driving superconducting qubits forward.

# On the fragility of gate-error metrics in simulation models of flux-tunable transmon quantum computers

Constructing a quantum computer requires immensely precise control over a quantum system. A lack of precision is often quantified by gate-error metrics, such as the average infidelity

or the diamond distance. However, usually such gate-error metrics are only considered for individual gates, and not the errors that accumulate over consecutive gates. Furthermore, it is not well known how susceptible the metrics are to the assumptions which make up the model. Here, we investigate these issues using realistic simulation models of quantum computers with flux-tunable transmons and coupling resonators. We show that the gate-error metrics are susceptible to many of the assumptions which make up the model. Additionally, we find that consecutive gate errors do not accumulate linearly. Previous work showed that the gate-error metrics are poor predictors for the performance of consecutive gates. Here, we provide further evidence and a concise theoretical explanation for this finding. Furthermore, we discuss a problem that potentially limits the overall scaling capabilities of the device architecture we study in this work.

18
Nov
2022

# An ultra-high gain single-photon transistor in the microwave regime

A photonic transistor that can switch or amplify an optical signal with a single gate photon requires strong non-linear interaction at the single-photon level. Circuit quantum electrodynamics

provides great flexibility to generate such an interaction, and thus could serve as an effective platform to realize a high-performance single-photon transistor. Here we demonstrate such a photonic transistor in the microwave regime. Our device consists of two microwave cavities dispersively coupled to a superconducting qubit. A single gate photon imprints a phase shift on the qubit state through one cavity, and further shifts the resonance frequency of the other cavity. In this way, we realize a gain of the transistor up to 53.4 dB, with an extinction ratio better than 20 dB. Our device outperforms previous devices in the optical regime by several orders in terms of optical gain, which indicates a great potential for application in the field of microwave quantum photonics and quantum information processing.