I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

15
Apr
2021

# True Differential Superconducting On-Chip Output Amplifier

The true-differential superconductor on-chip amplifier has complementary outputs that float with respect to chip ground. This improves signal integrity and compatibility with the receiving

semiconductor stage. Both source-terminated and non-source-terminated designs producing 4mV demonstrated rejection of a large common mode interference in the package. Measured margins are ±8.5% on the output bias, and ±28% on AC clock amplitude. Waveforms and eye diagrams are taken at 2.9-10Gb/s. Direct measurement of bit-error rates are better than the resolution limit of 1e-12 at 2.9Gb/s, and better than 1e-9 at 10Gb/s.

14
Apr
2021

# Circuit quantum electrodynamics: A new look toward developing full-wave numerical models

Devices built using circuit quantum electrodynamics architectures are one of the most popular approaches currently being pursued to develop quantum information processing hardware.

Although significant progress has been made over the previous two decades, there remain many technical issues limiting the performance of fabricated systems. Addressing these issues is made difficult by the absence of rigorous numerical modeling approaches. This work begins to address this issue by providing a new mathematical description of one of the most commonly used circuit quantum electrodynamics systems, a transmon qubit coupled to microwave transmission lines. Expressed in terms of three-dimensional vector fields, our new model is better suited to developing numerical solvers than the circuit element descriptions commonly used in the literature. We present details on the quantization of our new model, and derive quantum equations of motion for the coupled field-transmon system. These results can be used in developing full-wave numerical solvers in the future. To make this work more accessible to the engineering community, we assume only a limited amount of training in quantum physics and provide many background details throughout derivations.

# Measurement and Data-Assisted Simulation of Bit Error Rate in RQL Circuits

A circuit-simulation-based method is used to determine the thermally-induced bit error rate of superconducting logic circuits. Simulations are used to evaluate the multidimensional

Gaussian integral across noise current sources attached to the active devices. The method is data-assisted and has predictive power. Measurement determines the value of a single parameter, effective noise bandwidth, for each error mechanism. The errors in the distributed networks of comparator-free RQL logic nucleate across multiple Josephson junctions, so the effective critical current is about three times that of the individual devices. The effective noise bandwidth is only 6-23% of the junction plasma frequency at a modest clock rate of 3.4GHz, which is 1% of the plasma frequency. This analysis shows the ways measured bit error rate comes out so much lower than simplistic estimates based on isolated devices.

# Quantum beats of a magnetic fluxon in a two-cell SQUID

We report a detailed theoretical study of a coherent macroscopic quantum-mechanical phenomenon – quantum beats of a single magnetic fluxon trapped in a two-cell SQUID of high

kinetic inductance. We calculate numerically and analytically the low-lying energy levels of the fluxon, and explore their dependence on externally applied magnetic fields. The quantum dynamics of the fluxon shows quantum beats originating from its coherent quantum tunneling between the SQUID cells. We analyze the experimental setup based on a three-cell SQUID, allowing for time-resolved measurements of quantum beats of the fluxon.

13
Apr
2021

# Emergence of nonlinear friction from quantum fluctuations

Nonlinear damping, a force of friction that depends on the amplitude of motion, plays an important role in many electrical, mechanical and even biological oscillators. In novel technologies

such as carbon nanotubes, graphene membranes or superconducting resonators, the origin of nonlinear damping is sometimes unclear. This presents a problem, as the damping rate is a key figure of merit in the application of these systems to extremely precise sensors or quantum computers. Through measurements of a superconducting circuit, we show that nonlinear damping can emerge as a direct consequence of quantum fluctuations and the conservative nonlinearity of a Josephson junction. The phenomenon can be understood and visualized through the flow of quasi-probability in phase space, and accurately describes our experimental observations. Crucially, the effect is not restricted to superconducting circuits: we expect that quantum fluctuations or other sources of noise give rise to nonlinear damping in other systems with a similar conservative nonlinearity, such as nano-mechanical oscillators or even macroscopic systems.

# Quantum analysis of second-order effects in superconducting travelling-wave parametric amplifiers

We have performed a quantum mechanical analysis of travelling-wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) in order to investigate five experimental phenomena related to their operations, namely

the effect of impedance mismatch, the presence of upper idler modes, the presence of quantum and thermal noise, the generation of squeezed states, and the preservation of pre-squeezed states during amplification. Our analysis uses momentum operators to describe the spatial evolution of quantised modes along a TWPA. We calculate the restriction placed on pump amplitude as well as amplifier gain as a result of impedance mismatch between a TWPA and its external system. We apply our analysis to upper idler modes and demonstrate that they will result in suppressed gain. We show that an ideal TWPA is indeed quantum-limited – i.e. it introduces a half-quantum of zero-point fluctuation which is the minimum possible noise contribution for a phase-preserving linear amplifier. We analyse the thermal noise associated with a TWPA by considering the effect of distributed sources along an amplifier transmission line. Our analysis predicts a doubling of thermal noise in the high gain limit as a result of wave-mixing between signal and idler modes. We study the operation of a TWPA in the presence of a DC bias current, and have shown that highly squeezed states can in principle be generated. However, amplifying a pre-squeezed state using a non-degenerate TWPA generally reduces the squeezing advantage.

12
Apr
2021

# Experimental high-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement with superconducting transmon qutrits

Multipartite entanglement is one of the core concepts in quantum information science with broad applications that span from condensed matter physics to quantum physics foundations tests.

Although its most studied and tested forms encompass two-dimensional systems, current quantum platforms technically allow the manipulation of additional quantum levels. We report the first experimental demonstration of a high-dimensional multipartite entangled state in a superconducting quantum processor. We generate the three-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by designing the necessary pulses to perform high-dimensional quantum operations. We obtain the fidelity of 78±1%, proving the generation of a genuine three-partite and three-dimensional entangled state. To this date, only photonic devices have been able to create and manipulate these high-dimensional states. Our work demonstrates that another platform, superconducting systems, is ready to exploit high-dimensional physics phenomena and that a programmable quantum device accessed on the cloud can be used to design and execute experiments beyond binary quantum computation.

# Resolving catastrophic error bursts from cosmic rays in large arrays of superconducting qubits

Scalable quantum computing can become a reality with error correction, provided coherent qubits can be constructed in large arrays. The key premise is that physical errors can remain

both small and sufficiently uncorrelated as devices scale, so that logical error rates can be exponentially suppressed. However, energetic impacts from cosmic rays and latent radioactivity violate both of these assumptions. An impinging particle ionizes the substrate, radiating high energy phonons that induce a burst of quasiparticles, destroying qubit coherence throughout the device. High-energy radiation has been identified as a source of error in pilot superconducting quantum devices, but lacking a measurement technique able to resolve a single event in detail, the effect on large scale algorithms and error correction in particular remains an open question. Elucidating the physics involved requires operating large numbers of qubits at the same rapid timescales as in error correction, exposing the event’s evolution in time and spread in space. Here, we directly observe high-energy rays impacting a large-scale quantum processor. We introduce a rapid space and time-multiplexed measurement method and identify large bursts of quasiparticles that simultaneously and severely limit the energy coherence of all qubits, causing chip-wide failure. We track the events from their initial localised impact to high error rates across the chip. Our results provide direct insights into the scale and dynamics of these damaging error bursts in large-scale devices, and highlight the necessity of mitigation to enable quantum computing to scale.

06
Apr
2021

# Suppressing Coherent Two-Qubit Errors via Dynamical Decoupling

Scalable quantum information processing requires the ability to tune multi-qubit interactions. This makes the precise manipulation of quantum states particularly difficult for multi-qubit

interactions because tunability unavoidably introduces sensitivity to fluctuations in the tuned parameters, leading to erroneous multi-qubit gate operations. The performance of quantum algorithms may be severely compromised by coherent multi-qubit errors. It is therefore imperative to understand how these fluctuations affect multi-qubit interactions and, more importantly, to mitigate their influence. In this study, we demonstrate how to implement dynamical-decoupling techniques to suppress the two-qubit analogue of the dephasing on a superconducting quantum device featuring a compact tunable coupler, a trending technology that enables the fast manipulation of qubit–qubit interactions. The pure-dephasing time shows an up to ~14 times enhancement on average when using robust sequences. The results are in good agreement with the noise generated from room-temperature circuits. Our study further reveals the decohering processes associated with tunable couplers and establishes a framework to develop gates and sequences robust against two-qubit errors.

04
Apr
2021

# Optimal design of a superconducting transmon qubit with tapered wiring

Analytical formulas are presented for simplified but useful qubit geometries that predict surface dielectric loss when its thickness is much less than the metal thickness, the limiting

case needed for real devices. These formulas can thus be used to precisely predict loss and optimize the qubit layout. Surprisingly, a significant fraction of surface loss comes from the small wire that connects the Josephson junction to the qubit capacitor. Tapering this wire is shown to significantly lower its loss. Also predicted are the size and density of the two-level state (TLS) spectrum from individual surface dissipation sites.