While all quantum algorithms can be expressed in terms of single-qubit and two-qubit gates, more expressive gate sets can help reduce the algorithmic depth. This is important in the
presence of gate errors, especially those due to decoherence. Using superconducting qubits, we have implemented a three-qubit gate by simultaneously applying two-qubit operations, thereby realizing a three-body interaction. This method straightforwardly extends to other quantum hardware architectures, requires only a „firmware“ upgrade to implement, and is faster than its constituent two-qubit gates. The three-qubit gate represents an entire family of operations, creating flexibility in quantum-circuit compilation. We demonstrate a gate fidelity of 97.90%, which is near the coherence limit of our device. We then generate two classes of entangled states, the GHZ and W states, by applying the new gate only once; in comparison, decompositions into the standard gate set would have a two-qubit gate depth of two and three, respectively. Finally, we combine characterization methods and analyze the experimental and statistical errors on the fidelity of the gates and of the target states.
and quantum information"]processors [arXiv:1109.3743]. As in conventional computing, key attributes of such memories are high storage density and, crucially, random access, or the ability to read from or write to an arbitrarily chosen register. However, achieving such random access with quantum memories [arXiv:1904.09643] in a dense, hardware-efficient manner remains a challenge, for example requiring dedicated cavities per qubit [arXiv:1109.3743] or pulsed field gradients [arXiv:0908.0101]. Here we introduce a protocol using chirped pulses to encode qubits within an ensemble of quantum two-level systems, offering both random access and naturally supporting dynamical decoupling to enhance the memory lifetime. We demonstrate the protocol in the microwave regime using donor spins in silicon coupled to a superconducting cavity, storing up to four multi-photon microwave pulses and retrieving them on-demand up to 2~ms later. A further advantage is the natural suppression of superradiant echo emission, which we show is critical when approaching unit cooperativity. This approach offers the potential for microwave random access quantum memories with lifetimes exceeding seconds [arXiv:1301.6567, arXiv:2005.09275], while the chirped pulse phase encoding could also be applied in the optical regime to enhance quantum repeaters and networks.