Cryogenic microsystems that utilize different 3D integration techniques are being actively developed, e.g., for the needs of quantum technologies. 3D integration can introduce opportunities
and challenges to the thermal management of low temperature devices. In this work, we investigate sub-1 K inter-chip thermal resistance of a flip-chip bonded assembly, where two silicon chips are interconnected by indium bumps by atmospheric thermocompression bonding. The temperature dependence of the inter-chip thermal resistance follows the power law of αT−3, with α=7.7−15.4 K4 μm2/nW and a thermal contact area of 0.306 mm2. The T−3 relation indicates phononic interfacial thermal resistance, which is supported by the vanishing electrical thermal conduction due to the superconducting interconnections. Such a thermal resistance value can introduce a thermalization bottleneck, which can be detrimental for some applications, but it can also be harnessed. We provide a study of the latter case by simulating the performance of solid-state junction microrefrigerator where we use the measured thermal resistance value.
The field of propagating quantum microwaves has started to receive considerable attention in the past few years. Motivated at first by the lack of an efficient microwave-to-optical
platform that could solve the issue of secure communication between remote superconducting chips, current efforts are starting to reach other areas, from quantum communications to sensing. Here, we attempt at giving a state-of-the-art view of the two, pointing at some of the technical and theoretical challenges we need to address, and while providing some novel ideas and directions for future research. Hence, the goal of this paper is to provide a bigger picture, and — we hope — to inspire new ideas in quantum communications and sensing: from open-air microwave quantum key distribution to direct detection of dark matter, we expect that the recent efforts and results in quantum microwaves will soon attract a wider audience, not only in the academic community, but also in an industrial environment.
Entangled microwave photons form a fundamental resource for quantum information processing and sensing with continuous variables. We use a low-loss Josephson metamaterial comprising
superconducting non-linear asymmetric inductive elements to generate frequency (colour) entangled photons from vacuum fluctuations at a rate of 11 mega entangled bits per second with a potential rate above gigabit per second. The device is operated as a traveling wave parametric amplifier under Kerr-relieving biasing conditions. Furthermore, we realize the first successfully demonstration of single-mode squeezing in such devices – 2.4±0.7 dB below the zero-point level at half of modulation frequency.