Propagating Quantum Microwaves: Towards Applications in Communication and Sensing

  1. Mateo Casariego,
  2. Emmanuel Zambrini Cruzeiro,
  3. Stefano Gherardini,
  4. Tasio Gonzalez-Raya,
  5. Rui André,
  6. Gonçalo Frazão,
  7. Giacomo Catto,
  8. Mikko Möttönen,
  9. Debopam Datta,
  10. Klaara Viisanen,
  11. Joonas Govenius,
  12. Mika Prunnila,
  13. Kimmo Tuominen,
  14. Maximilian Reichert,
  15. Michael Renger,
  16. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  17. Frank Deppe,
  18. Harriet van der Vliet,
  19. A. J. Matthews,
  20. Yolanda Fernández,
  21. R. Assouly,
  22. R. Dassonneville,
  23. B. Huard,
  24. Mikel Sanz,
  25. and Yasser Omar
The field of propagating quantum microwaves has started to receive considerable attention in the past few years. Motivated at first by the lack of an efficient microwave-to-optical
platform that could solve the issue of secure communication between remote superconducting chips, current efforts are starting to reach other areas, from quantum communications to sensing. Here, we attempt at giving a state-of-the-art view of the two, pointing at some of the technical and theoretical challenges we need to address, and while providing some novel ideas and directions for future research. Hence, the goal of this paper is to provide a bigger picture, and — we hope — to inspire new ideas in quantum communications and sensing: from open-air microwave quantum key distribution to direct detection of dark matter, we expect that the recent efforts and results in quantum microwaves will soon attract a wider audience, not only in the academic community, but also in an industrial environment.

Dissipative stabilization of squeezing beyond \SI{3}{dB} in a microwave mode

  1. R. Dassonneville,
  2. R. Assouly,
  3. T. Peronnin,
  4. A. A. Clerk,
  5. A. Bienfait,
  6. and B. Huard
While a propagating state of light can be generated with arbitrary squeezing by pumping a parametric resonator, the intra-resonator state is limited to 3 dB of squeezing. Here, we implement
a reservoir engineering method to surpass this limit using superconducting circuits. Two-tone pumping of a three-wave-mixing element implements an effective coupling to a squeezed bath which stabilizes a squeezed state inside the resonator. Using an ancillary superconducting qubit as a probe allows us to perform a direct Wigner tomography of the intra-resonator state. The raw measurement provides a lower bound on the squeezing at about 6.7±0.2 dB below the zero-point level. Further, we show how to correct for resonator evolution during the Wigner tomography and obtain a squeezing as high as 8.2±0.8 dB. Moreover, this level of squeezing is achieved with a purity of −0.4±0.4 dB.

Fast high fidelity quantum non-demolition qubit readout via a non-perturbative cross-Kerr coupling

  1. R. Dassonneville,
  2. T. Ramos,
  3. V. Milchakov,
  4. L. Planat,
  5. É. Dumur,
  6. F. Foroughi,
  7. J. Puertas,
  8. S. Leger,
  9. K. Bharadwaj,
  10. J. Delaforce,
  11. K. Rafsanjani,
  12. C. Naud,
  13. W. Hasch-Guichard,
  14. J.J. García-Ripoll,
  15. N. Roch,
  16. and O. Buisson
Qubit readout is an indispensable element of any quantum information processor. In this work we propose an original coupling scheme between qubit and cavity mode based on a non-perturbative
cross-Kerr interaction. It leads to an alternative readout mechanism for superconducting qubits. This scheme, using the same experimental techniques as the perturbative cross-Kerr coupling (dispersive interaction), leads to an alternative readout mechanism for superconducting qubits. This new process, being non-perturbative, maximizes speed of qubit readout, single-shot fidelity and its quantum non-demolition (QND) behavior at the same time, while minimizing the effect of unwanted decay channels such as, for example, the Purcell effect. We observed 97.4 % single-shot readout fidelity for short 50 ns pulses. Using long measurement, we quantified the QND-ness to 99 %.