Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant superconducting chips

  1. Jiawei Qiu,
  2. Yang Liu,
  3. Jingjing Niu,
  4. Ling Hu,
  5. Yukai Wu,
  6. Libo Zhang,
  7. Wenhui Huang,
  8. Yuanzhen Chen,
  9. Jian Li,
  10. Song Liu,
  11. Youpeng Zhong,
  12. Luming Duan,
  13. and Dapeng Yu
Quantum teleportation~cite{Bennett1993} is of both fundamental interest and great practical importance in quantum information science. To date, quantum teleportation has been implemented
in various physical systems~\cite{Pirandola2015}, among which superconducting qubits are of particular practical significance as they emerge as a leading system to realize large-scale quantum computation~\cite{Arute2019,Wu2021}. Nevertheless, the number of superconducting qubits on the same chip is severely limited by the available chip size, the cooling power, and the wiring complexity. Realization of quantum teleportation and remote computation over qubits on distant superconducting chips is a key quantum communication technology to scaling up the system through a distributed quantum computational network~\cite{Gottesman1999,Eisert2000,Jiang2007,Kimble2008,Monroe2014}. However, this goal has not been realized yet in experiments due to the technical challenge of making a quantum interconnect between distant superconducting chips and the inefficient transfer of flying microwave photons over the lossy interconnects~\cite{Kurpiers2018,Axline2018,Campagne2018,Magnard2020}. Here we demonstrate deterministic teleportation of quantum states and entangling gates between distant superconducting chips connected by a 64-meter-long cable bus featuring an ultralow loss of 0.32~dB/km at cryogenic temperatures, where high fidelity remote entanglement is generated via flying microwave photons utilizing time-reversal-symmetry~\cite{Cirac1997,Korotkov2011}. Apart from the fundamental interest of teleporting macroscopic superconducting qubits over a long distance, our work lays a foundation to realization of large-scale superconducting quantum computation through a distributed computational network~\cite{Gottesman1999,Eisert2000,Jiang2007,Kimble2008,Monroe2014}.

Low-loss interconnects for modular superconducting quantum processors

  1. Jingjing Niu,
  2. Libo Zhang,
  3. Yang Liu,
  4. Jiawei Qiu,
  5. Wenhui Huang,
  6. Jiaxiang Huang,
  7. Hao Jia,
  8. Jiawei Liu,
  9. Ziyu Tao,
  10. Weiwei Wei,
  11. Yuxuan Zhou,
  12. Wanjing Zou,
  13. Yuanzhen Chen,
  14. Xiaowei Deng,
  15. Xiuhao Deng,
  16. Changkang Hu,
  17. Ling Hu,
  18. Jian Li,
  19. Dian Tan,
  20. Yuan Xu,
  21. Fei Yan,
  22. Tongxing Yan,
  23. Song Liu,
  24. Youpeng Zhong,
  25. Andrew N. Cleland,
  26. and Dapeng Yu
Scaling is now a key challenge in superconducting quantum computing. One solution is to build modular systems in which smaller-scale quantum modules are individually constructed and
calibrated, and then assembled into a larger architecture. This, however, requires the development of suitable interconnects. Here, we report low-loss interconnects based on pure aluminium coaxial cables and on-chip impedance transformers featuring quality factors up to 8.1×105, which is comparable to the performance of our transmon qubits fabricated on single-crystal sapphire substrate. We use these interconnects to link five quantum modules with inter-module quantum state transfer and Bell state fidelities up to 99\%. To benchmark the overall performance of the processor, we create maximally-entangled, multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. The generated inter-module four-qubit GHZ state exhibits 92.0\% fidelity. We also entangle up to 12 qubits in a GHZ state with 55.8±1.8% fidelity, which is above the genuine multipartite entanglement threshold of 1/2. These results represent a viable modular approach for large-scale superconducting quantum processors.

Entanglement properties of superconducting qubits coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line

  1. Yangqing Guo,
  2. Pingxing Chen,
  3. and Jian Li
Quantum entanglement, a key resource in quantum information processing, is reduced by interaction between the quantum system concerned and its unavoidable noisy environment. Therefore
it is of particular importance to study the dynamical properties of entanglement in open quantum systems. In this work, we mainly focus on two qubits coupled to an adjustable environment, namely a semi-infinite transmission line. The two qubits‘ relaxations, through individual channels or collective channel or both, can be adjusted by the qubits‘ transition frequencies. We examine entanglement dynamics in this model system with initial Werner state, and show that the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and revival can be observed. Due to the hardness of preparing the Werner state experimentally, we introduce a new type of entangled state called pseudo-Werner state, which preserves as much entangling property as the Werner state, and more importantly, is experiment friendly. Furthermore, we provide detailed procedures for generating pseudo-Werner state and studying entanglement dynamics with it, which can be straightforwardly implemented in a superconducting waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

Conditional coherent control with superconducting artificial atoms

  1. Chang-Kang Hu,
  2. Jiahao Yuan,
  3. Bruno A. Veloso,
  4. Jiawei Qiu,
  5. Yuxuan Zhou,
  6. Libo Zhang,
  7. Ji Chu,
  8. Orkesh Nurbolat,
  9. Ling Hu,
  10. Jian Li,
  11. Yuan Xu,
  12. Youpeng Zhong,
  13. Song Liu,
  14. Fei Yan,
  15. Dian Tan,
  16. R. Bachelard,
  17. Alan C. Santos,
  18. C. J. Villas-Boas,
  19. and Dapeng Yu
Controlling the flow of quantum information is a fundamental task for quantum computers, which is unpractical to realize on classical devices. Coherent devices which can process quantum
states are thus required to route the quantum states yielding the information. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the smallest quantum transistor for superconducting processors, composed of collector and emitter qubits, and the coupler. The interaction strength between the collector and emitter is controlled by tuning the frequency and the state of the gate qubit, effectively implementing a quantum switch. From the truth-table measurement (open-gate fidelity 93.38%, closed-gate fidelity 98.77%), we verify the high performance of the quantum transistor. We also show that taking into account the third energy level of the qubits is critical to achieving a high-fidelity transistor. The presented device has a strong potential for quantum information processes in superconducting platforms.

Engineering superconducting qubits to reduce quasiparticles and charge noise

  1. Xianchuang Pan,
  2. Haolan Yuan,
  3. Yuxuan Zhou,
  4. Libo Zhang,
  5. Jian Li,
  6. Song Liu,
  7. Zhi Hao Jiang,
  8. Gianluigi Catelani,
  9. Ling Hu,
  10. and Fei Yan
In any physical realization of a qubit, identifying, quantifying, and suppressing mechanisms of decoherence are important steps towards the goal of engineering a universal quantum computeror a quantum simulator. Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions offer flexibility in qubit design; however, their performance is adversely affected by quasiparticles (broken Cooper pairs) whose density, as observed in various systems, is considerably higher than that expected in thermal equilibrium. A full understanding of the generation mechanism and a mitigation strategy that is compatible with scalable, high-coherence devices are therefore highly desirable. Here we experimentally demonstrate how to control quasiparticle generation by downsizing the qubit structure, capping it with a metallic cover, and equipping it with suitable quasiparticle traps. We achieve record low charge-parity switching rate (<1Hz) in our aluminium devices. At the same time, the devices display improved stability with respect to discrete charging events. Our findings support the hypothesis that the generation of quasiparticles is dominated by the breaking of Cooper pairs at the junction, as a result of photon absorption mediated by the antenna-like qubit structure. We thus demonstrate a convenient approach to shape the electromagnetic environment of superconducting circuits in the sub-terahertz regime, inhibiting decoherence from quasiparticle poisoning.[/expand]

Scalable method for eliminating residual ZZ interaction between superconducting qubits

  1. Zhongchu Ni,
  2. Sai Li,
  3. Libo Zhang,
  4. Ji Chu,
  5. Jingjing Niu,
  6. Tongxing Yan,
  7. Xiuhao Deng,
  8. Ling Hu,
  9. Jian Li,
  10. Youpeng Zhong,
  11. Song Liu,
  12. Fei Yan,
  13. Yuan Xu,
  14. and Dapeng Yu
Unwanted ZZ interaction is a quantum-mechanical crosstalk phenomenon which correlates qubit dynamics and is ubiquitous in superconducting qubit system. It adversely affects the quality
of quantum operations and can be detrimental in scalable quantum information processing. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a practically extensible approach for complete cancellation of residual ZZ interaction between fixed-frequency transmon qubits, which are known for long coherence and simple control. We apply to the intermediate coupler that connects the qubits a weak microwave drive at a properly chosen frequency in order to noninvasively induce ac Stark shift for ZZ cancellation. We verify the cancellation performance by measuring vanishing two-qubit entangling phases and ZZ correlations. In addition, we implement randomized benchmarking experiment to extract the idling gate fidelity which shows good agreement with the coherence limit, demonstrating the effectiveness of ZZ cancellation. Our method allows independent addressability of each qubit-qubit connection, and is applicable to both non-tunable and tunable coupler, promising better compatibility with future large-scale quantum processors.

Optimal charging of a superconducting quantum battery

  1. Chang-Kang Hu,
  2. Jiawei Qiu,
  3. Paulo J. P. Souza,
  4. Jiahao Yuan,
  5. Yuxuan Zhou,
  6. Libo Zhang,
  7. Ji Chu,
  8. Xianchuang Pan,
  9. Ling Hu,
  10. Jian Li,
  11. Yuan Xu,
  12. Youpeng Zhong,
  13. Song Liu,
  14. Fei Yan,
  15. Dian Tan,
  16. R. Bachelard,
  17. C. J. Villas-Boas,
  18. Alan C. Santos,
  19. and Dapeng Yu
Quantum batteries are miniature energy storage devices and play a very important role in quantum thermodynamics. In recent years, quantum batteries have been extensively studied, but
limited in theoretical level. Here we report the experimental realization of a quantum battery based on superconducting qubits. Our model explores dark and bright states to achieve stable and powerful charging processes, respectively. Our scheme makes use of the quantum adiabatic brachistochrone, which allows us to speed up the {battery ergotropy injection. Due to the inherent interaction of the system with its surrounding, the battery exhibits a self-discharge, which is shown to be described by a supercapacitor-like self-discharging mechanism. Our results paves the way for proposals of new superconducting circuits able to store extractable work for further usage.

Realization of Super-Robust Geometric Control in a Superconducting Circuit

  1. Sai Li,
  2. Bao-Jie Liu,
  3. Zhongchu Ni,
  4. Libo Zhang,
  5. Zheng-Yuan Xue,
  6. Jian Li,
  7. Fei Yan,
  8. Yuanzhen Chen,
  9. Song Liu,
  10. Man-Hong Yung,
  11. Yuan Xu,
  12. and Dapeng Yu
Geometric phases accompanying adiabatic quantum evolutions can be used to construct robust quantum control for quantum information processing due to their noise-resilient feature. A
significant development along this line is to construct geometric gates using nonadiabatic quantum evolutions to reduce errors due to decoherence. However, it has been shown that nonadiabatic geometric gates are not necessarily more robust than dynamical ones, in contrast to an intuitive expectation. Here we experimentally investigate this issue for the case of nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation~(NHQC) and show that conventional NHQC schemes cannot guarantee the expected robustness due to a cross coupling to the states outside the computational space. We implement a new set of constraints for gate construction in order to suppress such cross coupling to achieve an enhanced robustness. Using a superconducting quantum circuit, we demonstrate high-fidelity holonomic gates whose infidelity against quasi-static transverse errors can be suppressed up to the fourth order, instead of the second order in conventional NHQC and dynamical gates. In addition, we explicitly measure the accumulated dynamical phase due to the above mentioned cross coupling and verify that it is indeed much reduced in our NHQC scheme. We further demonstrate a protocol for constructing two-qubit NHQC gates also with an enhanced robustness.

Suppressing Coherent Two-Qubit Errors via Dynamical Decoupling

  1. Jiawei Qiu,
  2. Yuxuan Zhou,
  3. Chang-Kang Hu,
  4. Jiahao Yuan,
  5. Libo Zhang,
  6. Ji Chu,
  7. Wenhui Huang,
  8. Weiyang Liu,
  9. Kai Luo,
  10. Zhongchu Ni,
  11. Xianchuang Pan,
  12. Zhixuan Yang,
  13. Yimeng Zhang,
  14. Yuanzhen Chen,
  15. Xiu-Hao Deng,
  16. Ling Hu,
  17. Jian Li,
  18. Jingjing Niu,
  19. Yuan Xu,
  20. Tongxing Yan,
  21. Youpeng Zhong,
  22. Song Liu,
  23. Fei Yan,
  24. and Dapeng Yu
Scalable quantum information processing requires the ability to tune multi-qubit interactions. This makes the precise manipulation of quantum states particularly difficult for multi-qubit
interactions because tunability unavoidably introduces sensitivity to fluctuations in the tuned parameters, leading to erroneous multi-qubit gate operations. The performance of quantum algorithms may be severely compromised by coherent multi-qubit errors. It is therefore imperative to understand how these fluctuations affect multi-qubit interactions and, more importantly, to mitigate their influence. In this study, we demonstrate how to implement dynamical-decoupling techniques to suppress the two-qubit analogue of the dephasing on a superconducting quantum device featuring a compact tunable coupler, a trending technology that enables the fast manipulation of qubit–qubit interactions. The pure-dephasing time shows an up to ~14 times enhancement on average when using robust sequences. The results are in good agreement with the noise generated from room-temperature circuits. Our study further reveals the decohering processes associated with tunable couplers and establishes a framework to develop gates and sequences robust against two-qubit errors.

Phase sensitive Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference in superconducting quantum circuit

  1. Zhi-Xuan Yang,
  2. Yi-Meng Zhang,
  3. Yu-Xuan Zhou,
  4. Li-Bo Zhang,
  5. Fei Yan,
  6. Song Liu,
  7. Yuan Xu,
  8. and Jian Li
Superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture composed of superconducting qubit and resonator is a powerful platform for exploring quantum physics and quantum information
processing. By employing techniques developed for superconducting quantum computing, we experimentally investigate phase-sensitive Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) interference phenomena in a circuit QED. Our experiments cover a large range of LZS transition parameters, and demonstrate the LZS induced Rabi-like oscillation as well as phase-dependent steady-state population.