Propagating Quantum Microwaves: Towards Applications in Communication and Sensing

  1. Mateo Casariego,
  2. Emmanuel Zambrini Cruzeiro,
  3. Stefano Gherardini,
  4. Tasio Gonzalez-Raya,
  5. Rui André,
  6. Gonçalo Frazão,
  7. Giacomo Catto,
  8. Mikko Möttönen,
  9. Debopam Datta,
  10. Klaara Viisanen,
  11. Joonas Govenius,
  12. Mika Prunnila,
  13. Kimmo Tuominen,
  14. Maximilian Reichert,
  15. Michael Renger,
  16. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  17. Frank Deppe,
  18. Harriet van der Vliet,
  19. A. J. Matthews,
  20. Yolanda Fernández,
  21. R. Assouly,
  22. R. Dassonneville,
  23. B. Huard,
  24. Mikel Sanz,
  25. and Yasser Omar
The field of propagating quantum microwaves has started to receive considerable attention in the past few years. Motivated at first by the lack of an efficient microwave-to-optical
platform that could solve the issue of secure communication between remote superconducting chips, current efforts are starting to reach other areas, from quantum communications to sensing. Here, we attempt at giving a state-of-the-art view of the two, pointing at some of the technical and theoretical challenges we need to address, and while providing some novel ideas and directions for future research. Hence, the goal of this paper is to provide a bigger picture, and — we hope — to inspire new ideas in quantum communications and sensing: from open-air microwave quantum key distribution to direct detection of dark matter, we expect that the recent efforts and results in quantum microwaves will soon attract a wider audience, not only in the academic community, but also in an industrial environment.

The scattering coefficients of superconducting microwave resonators: II. System-bath approach

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Matti Partanen,
  3. Florian Fesquet,
  4. Kedar E. Honasoge,
  5. Fabian Kronowetter,
  6. Yuki Nojiri,
  7. Michael Renger,
  8. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  9. Achim Marx,
  10. Frank Deppe,
  11. and Rudolf Gross
We describe a unified quantum approach for analyzing the scattering coefficients of superconducting microwave resonators with a variety of geometries. We also generalize the method
to a chain of resonators in either hanger- or necklace-type, and reveal interesting transport properties similar to a photonic crystal. It is shown that both the quantum and classical analyses provide consistent results, and they together form a solid basis for analyzing the decoherence effect in a general microwave resonator. These results pave the way for designing and applying superconducting microwave resonators in complex circuits, and should stimulate the interest of distinguishing different decoherence mechanisms of a resonator mode beyond free energy relaxation.

The scattering coefficients of superconducting microwave resonators: I. Transfer-matrix approach

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Meike Pfeiffer,
  3. Matti Partanen,
  4. Florian Fesquet,
  5. Kedar E. Honasoge,
  6. Fabian Kronowetter,
  7. Yuki Nojiri,
  8. Michael Renger,
  9. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  10. Achim Marx,
  11. Frank Deppe,
  12. and Rudolf Gross
We describe a unified classical approach for analyzing the scattering coefficients of superconducting microwave resonators with a variety of geometries. To fill the gap between experiment
and theory, we also consider the influences of small circuit asymmetry and the finite length of the feedlines, and describe a procedure to correct them in typical measurement results. We show that, similar to the transmission coefficient of a hanger-type resonator, the reflection coefficient of a necklace- or bridge-type resonator does also contain a reference point which can be used to characterize the electrical properties of a microwave resonator in a single measurement. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of superconducting microwave resonators from the design concepts to the characterization details.

Tuning and Amplifying the Interactions in Superconducting Quantum Circuits with Subradiant Qubits

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Florian Fesquet,
  3. Kedar E. Honasoge,
  4. Fabian Kronowetter,
  5. Yuki Nojiri,
  6. Michael Renger,
  7. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  8. Achim Marx,
  9. Frank Deppe,
  10. and Rudolf Gross
We propose a tunable coupler consisting of N off-resonant and fixed-frequency qubits that can tune and even amplify the effective interaction between two general circuit components.
The tuning range of the interaction is proportional to N, with a minimum value of zero and a maximum that can exceed the physical coupling rates in the system. The effective coupling rate is determined by the collective magnetic quantum number of the qubit ensemble, which takes only discrete values and is free from collective decay and decoherence. Using single-photon pi-pulses, the coupling rate can be switched between arbitrary initial and final values within the dynamic range in a single step without going through intermediate values. A cascade of the couplers for amplifying small interactions or weak signals is also discussed. These results should not only stimulate interest in exploring the collective effects in quantum information processing, but also enable development of applications in tuning and amplifying the interactions in a general cavity-QED system.

In-situ tunable nonlinearity and competing signal paths in coupled superconducting resonators

  1. Michael Fischer,
  2. Qi-Ming Chen,
  3. Christian Besson,
  4. Peter Eder,
  5. Jan Goetz,
  6. Stefan Pogorzalek,
  7. Michael Renger,
  8. Edwar Xie,
  9. Michael J. Hartmann,
  10. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  11. Achim Marx,
  12. Frank Deppe,
  13. and Rudolf Gross
We have fabricated and studied a system of two tunable and coupled nonlinear superconducting resonators. The nonlinearity is introduced by galvanically coupled dc-SQUIDs. We simulate
the system response by means of a circuit model, which includes an additional signal path introduced by the electromagnetic environment. Furthermore, we present two methods allowing us to experimentally determine the nonlinearity. First, we fit the measured frequency and flux dependence of the transmission data to simulations based on the equivalent circuit model. Second, we fit the power dependence of the transmission data to a model that is predicted by the nonlinear equation of motion describing the system. Our results show that we are able to tune the nonlinearity of the resonators by almost two orders of magnitude via an external coil and two on-chip antennas. The studied system represents the basic building block for larger systems, allowing for quantum simulations of bosonic many-body systems with a larger number of lattice sites.

Quantum Fourier Transform in Oscillating Modes

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Frank Deppe,
  3. Re-Bing Wu,
  4. Luyan Sun,
  5. Yu-xi Liu,
  6. Yuki Nojiri,
  7. Stefan Pogorzalek,
  8. Michael Renger,
  9. Matti Partanen,
  10. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  11. Achim Marx,
  12. and Rudolf Gross
Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a key ingredient of many quantum algorithms. In typical applications such as phase estimation, a considerable number of ancilla qubits and gates are
used to form a Hilbert space large enough for high-precision results. Qubit recycling reduces the number of ancilla qubits to one, but it is only applicable to semi-classical QFT and requires repeated measurements and feedforward within the coherence time of the qubits. In this work, we explore a novel approach based on resonators that forms a high-dimensional Hilbert space for the realization of QFT. By employing the perfect state-transfer method, we map an unknown multi-qubit state to a single resonator, and obtain the QFT state in the second oscillator through cross-Kerr interaction and projective measurement. A quantitive analysis shows that our method allows for high-dimensional and fully-quantum QFT employing the state-of-the-art superconducting quantum circuits. This paves the way for implementing various QFT related quantum algorithms.