Demonstration of tunable three-body interactions between superconducting qubits

  1. Tim Menke,
  2. William P. Banner,
  3. Thomas R. Bergamaschi,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  6. Steven J. Weber,
  7. Roni Winik,
  8. Alexander Melville,
  9. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  10. Danna Rosenberg,
  11. Kyle Serniak,
  12. Mollie E. Schwartz,
  13. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  14. Alán Aspuru-Guzik,
  15. Simon Gustavsson,
  16. Jeffrey A. Grover,
  17. Cyrus F. Hirjibehedin,
  18. Andrew J. Kerman,
  19. and William D. Oliver
Nonpairwise multi-qubit interactions present a useful resource for quantum information processors. Their implementation would facilitate more efficient quantum simulations of molecules
and combinatorial optimization problems, and they could simplify error suppression and error correction schemes. Here we present a superconducting circuit architecture in which a coupling module mediates 2-local and 3-local interactions between three flux qubits by design. The system Hamiltonian is estimated via multi-qubit pulse sequences that implement Ramsey-type interferometry between all neighboring excitation manifolds in the system. The 3-local interaction is coherently tunable over several MHz via the coupler flux biases and can be turned off, which is important for applications in quantum annealing, analog quantum simulation, and gate-model quantum computation.

On-Demand Directional Photon Emission using Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics

  1. Bharath Kannan,
  2. Aziza Almanakly,
  3. Youngkyu Sung,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. David A. Rower,
  6. Jochen Braumüller,
  7. Alexander Melville,
  8. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  9. Amir Karamlou,
  10. Kyle Serniak,
  11. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  12. Mollie E. Schwartz,
  13. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  14. Roni Winik,
  15. Joel I-Jan Wang,
  16. Terry P. Orlando,
  17. Simon Gustavsson,
  18. Jeffrey A. Grover,
  19. and William D. Oliver
Routing quantum information between non-local computational nodes is a foundation for extensible networks of quantum processors. Quantum information can be transferred between arbitrary
nodes by photons that propagate between them, or by resonantly coupling nearby nodes. Notably, conventional approaches involving propagating photons have limited fidelity due to photon loss and are often unidirectional, whereas architectures that use direct resonant coupling are bidirectional in principle, but can generally accommodate only a few local nodes. Here, we demonstrate high-fidelity, on-demand, bidirectional photon emission using an artificial molecule comprising two superconducting qubits strongly coupled to a waveguide. Quantum interference between the photon emission pathways from the molecule generate single photons that selectively propagate in a chosen direction. This architecture is capable of both photon emission and capture, and can be tiled in series to form an extensible network of quantum processors with all-to-all connectivity.

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) as a Low-loss Dielectric for Superconducting Quantum Circuits and Qubits

  1. Joel I.J. Wang,
  2. Megan A. Yamoah,
  3. Qing Li,
  4. Amir Karamlou,
  5. Thao Dinh,
  6. Bharath Kannan,
  7. Jochen Braumüller,
  8. David Kim,
  9. Alexander J. Melville,
  10. Sarah E. Muschinske,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Kyle Serniak,
  13. Youngkyu Sung,
  14. Roni Winik,
  15. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  16. Mollie Schwartz,
  17. Kenji Watanabe,
  18. Takashi Taniguchi,
  19. Terry P. Orlando,
  20. Simon Gustavsson,
  21. Pablo Jarillo-Herrero,
  22. and William D. Oliver
Dielectrics with low loss at microwave frequencies are imperative for high-coherence solid-state quantum computing platforms. We study the dielectric loss of hexagonal boron nitride
(hBN) thin films in the microwave regime by measuring the quality factor of parallel-plate capacitors (PPCs) made of NbSe2-hBN-NbSe2 heterostructures integrated into superconducting circuits. The extracted microwave loss tangent of hBN is bounded to be at most in the mid-10-6 range in the low temperature, single-photon regime. We integrate hBN PPCs with aluminum Josephson junctions to realize transmon qubits with coherence times reaching 25 μs, consistent with the hBN loss tangent inferred from resonator measurements. The hBN PPC reduces the qubit feature size by approximately two-orders of magnitude compared to conventional all-aluminum coplanar transmons. Our results establish hBN as a promising dielectric for building high-coherence quantum circuits with substantially reduced footprint and, with a high energy participation that helps to reduce unwanted qubit cross-talk.

Quantum transport and localization in 1d and 2d tight-binding lattices

  1. Amir H. Karamlou,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Patrick Harrington,
  6. Bharath Kannan,
  7. David Kim,
  8. Morten Kjaergaard,
  9. Alexander Melville,
  10. Sarah Muschinske,
  11. Bethany Niedzielski,
  12. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  13. Roni Winik,
  14. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  15. Mollie Schwartz,
  16. Charles Tahan,
  17. Terry P. Orlando,
  18. Simon Gustavsson,
  19. and William D. Oliver
Particle transport and localization phenomena in condensed-matter systems can be modeled using a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian. The ideal experimental emulation of such a model
utilizes simultaneous, high-fidelity control and readout of each lattice site in a highly coherent quantum system. Here, we experimentally study quantum transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional tight-binding lattices, emulated by a fully controllable 3×3 array of superconducting qubits. We probe the propagation of entanglement throughout the lattice and extract the degree of localization in the Anderson and Wannier-Stark regimes in the presence of site-tunable disorder strengths and gradients. Our results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations and match theoretical predictions based on the tight-binding model. The demonstrated level of experimental control and accuracy in extracting the system observables of interest will enable the exploration of larger, interacting lattices where numerical simulations become intractable.

Improving qubit coherence using closed-loop feedback

  1. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  2. Roni Winik,
  3. Amir H. Karamlou,
  4. Jochen Braumüller,
  5. Agustin Di Paolo,
  6. Youngkyu Sung,
  7. Bharath Kannan,
  8. Morten Kjaergaard,
  9. David K. Kim,
  10. Alexander J. Melville,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. Simon Gustavsson,
  14. and William D. Oliver
Superconducting qubits are a promising platform for building a larger-scale quantum processor capable of solving otherwise intractable problems. In order for the processor to reach
practical viability, the gate errors need to be further suppressed and remain stable for extended periods of time. With recent advances in qubit control, both single- and two-qubit gate fidelities are now in many cases limited by the coherence times of the qubits. Here we experimentally employ closed-loop feedback to stabilize the frequency fluctuations of a superconducting transmon qubit, thereby increasing its coherence time by 26\% and reducing the single-qubit error rate from (8.5±2.1)×10−4 to (5.9±0.7)×10−4. Importantly, the resulting high-fidelity operation remains effective even away from the qubit flux-noise insensitive point, significantly increasing the frequency bandwidth over which the qubit can be operated with high fidelity. This approach is helpful in large qubit grids, where frequency crowding and parasitic interactions between the qubits limit their performance.

Deep Neural Network Discrimination of Multiplexed Superconducting Qubit States

  1. Benjamin Lienhard,
  2. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  3. Luke C.G. Govia,
  4. Cole R. Hoffer,
  5. Jack Y. Qiu,
  6. Diego Ristè,
  7. Matthew Ware,
  8. David Kim,
  9. Roni Winik,
  10. Alexander Melville,
  11. Bethany Niedzielski,
  12. Jonilyn Yoder,
  13. Guilhem J. Ribeill,
  14. Thomas A. Ohki,
  15. Hari K. Krovi,
  16. Terry P. Orlando,
  17. Simon Gustavsson,
  18. and William D. Oliver
Demonstrating the quantum computational advantage will require high-fidelity control and readout of multi-qubit systems. As system size increases, multiplexed qubit readout becomes
a practical necessity to limit the growth of resource overhead. Many contemporary qubit-state discriminators presume single-qubit operating conditions or require considerable computational effort, limiting their potential extensibility. Here, we present multi-qubit readout using neural networks as state discriminators. We compare our approach to contemporary methods employed on a quantum device with five superconducting qubits and frequency-multiplexed readout. We find that fully-connected feedforward neural networks increase the qubit-state-assignment fidelity for our system. Relative to contemporary discriminators, the assignment error rate is reduced by up to 25 % due to the compensation of system-dependent nonidealities such as readout crosstalk which is reduced by up to one order of magnitude. Our work demonstrates a potentially extensible building block for high-fidelity readout relevant to both near-term devices and future fault-tolerant systems.

Probing quantum information propagation with out-of-time-ordered correlators

  1. Jochen Braumüller,
  2. Amir H. Karamlou,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Bharath Kannan,
  5. David Kim,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Alexander Melville,
  8. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  9. Youngkyu Sung,
  10. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  11. Roni Winik,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. Terry P. Orlando,
  14. Simon Gustavsson,
  15. Charles Tahan,
  16. and William D. Oliver
Interacting many-body quantum systems show a rich array of physical phenomena and dynamical properties, but are notoriously difficult to study: they are challenging analytically and
exponentially difficult to simulate on classical computers. Small-scale quantum information processors hold the promise to efficiently emulate these systems, but characterizing their dynamics is experimentally challenging, requiring probes beyond simple correlation functions and multi-body tomographic methods. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs), one of the most effective tools for studying quantum system evolution and processes like quantum thermalization. We implement a 3×3 two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard lattice with a superconducting circuit, study its time-reversibility by performing a Loschmidt echo, and measure OTOCs that enable us to observe the propagation of quantum information. A central requirement for our experiments is the ability to coherently reverse time evolution, which we achieve with a digital-analog simulation scheme. In the presence of frequency disorder, we observe that localization can partially be overcome with more particles present, a possible signature of many-body localization in two dimensions.

Universal non-adiabatic control of small-gap superconducting qubits

  1. Daniel L. Campbell,
  2. Yun-Pil Shim,
  3. Bharath Kannan,
  4. Roni Winik,
  5. Alexander Melville,
  6. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  7. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  8. Charles Tahan,
  9. Simon Gustavsson,
  10. and William D. Oliver
Resonant transverse driving of a two-level system as viewed in the rotating frame couples two degenerate states at the Rabi frequency, an amazing equivalence that emerges in quantum
mechanics. While spectacularly successful at controlling natural and artificial quantum systems, certain limitations may arise (e.g., the achievable gate speed) due to non-idealities like the counter-rotating term. Here, we explore a complementary approach to quantum control based on non-resonant, non-adiabatic driving of a longitudinal parameter in the presence of a fixed transverse coupling. We introduce a superconducting composite qubit (CQB), formed from two capacitively coupled transmon qubits, which features a small avoided crossing — smaller than the environmental temperature — between two energy levels. We control this low-frequency CQB using solely baseband pulses, non-adiabatic transitions, and coherent Landau-Zener interference to achieve fast, high-fidelity, single-qubit operations with Clifford fidelities exceeding 99.7%. We also perform coupled qubit operations between two low-frequency CQBs. This work demonstrates that universal non-adiabatic control of low-frequency qubits is feasible using solely baseband pulses.

Generating Spatially Entangled Itinerant Photons with Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics

  1. Bharath Kannan,
  2. Daniel Campbell,
  3. Francisca Vasconcelos,
  4. Roni Winik,
  5. David Kim,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Philip Krantz,
  8. Alexander Melville,
  9. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  10. Jonilyn Yoder,
  11. Terry P. Orlando,
  12. Simon Gustavsson,
  13. and William D. Oliver
Realizing a fully connected network of quantum processors requires the ability to distribute quantum entanglement. For distant processing nodes, this can be achieved by generating,
routing, and capturing spatially entangled itinerant photons. In this work, we demonstrate deterministic generation of such photons using superconducting transmon qubits that are directly coupled to a waveguide. In particular, we generate two-photon N00N states and show that the state and spatial entanglement of the emitted photons can be tuned via the qubit frequencies. Using quadrature amplitude detection, we reconstruct the moments and correlations of the photonic modes and demonstrate state preparation fidelities of 84%. Our results provide a path towards realizing quantum communication and teleportation protocols using non-classical, spatially entangled itinerant photons.

Multi-level Quantum Noise Spectroscopy

  1. Youngkyu Sung,
  2. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  3. Jochen Braumüller,
  4. Fei Yan,
  5. Joel I-Jan Wang,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Roni Winik,
  8. Philip Krantz,
  9. Andreas Bengtsson,
  10. Alexander J. Melville,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Mollie E. Schwartz,
  13. David K. Kim,
  14. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  15. Terry P. Orlando,
  16. Simon Gustavsson,
  17. and William D. Oliver
System noise identification is crucial to the engineering of robust quantum systems. Although existing quantum noise spectroscopy (QNS) protocols measure an aggregate amount of noise
affecting a quantum system, they generally cannot distinguish between the underlying processes that contribute to it. Here, we propose and experimentally validate a spin-locking-based QNS protocol that exploits the multi-level energy structure of a superconducting qubit to achieve two notable advances. First, our protocol extends the spectral range of weakly anharmonic qubit spectrometers beyond the present limitations set by their lack of strong anharmonicity. Second, the additional information gained from probing the higher-excited levels enables us to identify and distinguish contributions from different underlying noise mechanisms.