Arrays of coupled superconducting qubits are analog quantum simulators able to emulate a wide range of tight-binding models in parameter regimes that are difficult to access or adjustin natural materials. In this work, we use a superconducting qubit array to emulate a tight-binding model on the rhombic lattice, which features flat bands. Enabled by broad adjustability of the dispersion of the energy bands and of on-site disorder, we examine regimes where flat-band localization and Anderson localization compete. We observe disorder-induced localization for dispersive bands and disorder-induced delocalization for flat bands. Remarkably, we find a sudden transition between the two regimes and, in its vicinity, the semblance of quantum critical scaling.

Quantum interconnects facilitate entanglement distribution between non-local computational nodes. For superconducting processors, microwave photons are a natural means to mediate thisdistribution. However, many existing architectures limit node connectivity and directionality. In this work, we construct a chiral quantum interconnect between two nominally identical modules in separate microwave packages. We leverage quantum interference to emit and absorb microwave photons on demand and in a chosen direction between these modules. We optimize the protocol using model-free reinforcement learning to maximize absorption efficiency. By halting the emission process halfway through its duration, we generate remote entanglement between modules in the form of a four-qubit W state with 62.4 +/- 1.6% (leftward photon propagation) and 62.1 +/- 1.2% (rightward) fidelity, limited mainly by propagation loss. This quantum network architecture enables all-to-all connectivity between non-local processors for modular and extensible quantum computation.

In superconducting qubits, suppression of spontaneous emission is essential to achieve fast dispersive measurement and reset without sacrificing qubit lifetime. We show that resonator-mediateddecay of the qubit mode to the feedline can be suppressed using destructive interference, where the readout resonator is coupled to the feedline at two points. This „interferometric Purcell filter“ does not require dedicated filter components or impedance mismatch in the feedline, making it suitable for applications such as all-pass readout. We design and fabricate a device with the proposed scheme and demonstrate suppression of resonator-mediated decay that exceeds 2 orders of magnitude over a bandwidth of 400 MHz.

Superconducting quantum processors are a compelling platform for analog quantum simulation due to the precision control, fast operation, and site-resolved readout inherent to the hardware.Arrays of coupled superconducting qubits natively emulate the dynamics of interacting particles according to the Bose-Hubbard model. However, many interesting condensed-matter phenomena emerge only in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Here, we emulate the dynamics of charged particles in an electromagnetic field using a superconducting quantum simulator. We realize a broadly adjustable synthetic magnetic vector potential by applying continuous modulation tones to all qubits. We verify that the synthetic vector potential obeys requisite properties of electromagnetism: a spatially-varying vector potential breaks time-reversal symmetry and generates a gauge-invariant synthetic magnetic field, and a temporally-varying vector potential produces a synthetic electric field. We demonstrate that the Hall effect–the transverse deflection of a charged particle propagating in an electromagnetic field–exists in the presence of the synthetic electromagnetic field.

Phase slips occur across all Josephson junctions (JJs) at a rate that increases with the impedance of the junction. In superconducting qubits composed of JJ-array superinductors —such as fluxonium — phase slips in the array can lead to decoherence. In particular, phase-slip processes at the individual array junctions can coherently interfere, each with an Aharonov–Casher phase that depends on the offset charges of the array islands. These coherent quantum phase slips (CQPS) perturbatively modify the qubit frequency, and therefore charge noise on the array islands will lead to dephasing. By varying the impedance of the array junctions, we design a set of fluxonium qubits in which the expected phase-slip rate within the JJ-array changes by several orders of magnitude. We characterize the coherence times of these qubits and demonstrate that the scaling of CQPS-induced dephasing rates agrees with our theoretical model. Furthermore, we perform noise spectroscopy of two qubits in regimes dominated by either CQPS or flux noise. We find the noise power spectrum associated with CQPS dephasing appears to be featureless at low frequencies and not 1/f. Numerical simulations indicate this behavior is consistent with charge noise generated by charge-parity fluctuations within the array. Our findings broadly inform JJ-array-design tradeoffs, relevant for the numerous superconducting qubit designs employing JJ-array superinductors.

Robust and scalable multiplexed qubit readout will be essential to the realization of a fault-tolerant quantum computer. To this end, we propose and demonstrate transmission-based dispersivereadout of a superconducting qubit using an all-pass resonator that preferentially emits readout photons in one direction. This is in contrast to typical readout schemes, which intentionally mismatch the feedline at one end so that the readout signal preferentially decays toward the output. We show that this intentional mismatch creates scaling challenges, including larger spread of effective resonator linewidths due to non-ideal impedance environments and added infrastructure for impedance matching. Our proposed „all-pass readout“ architecture avoids the need for intentional mismatch and aims to enable reliable, modular design of multiplexed qubit readout, thus improving the scaling prospects of quantum computers. We design and fabricate an all-pass readout resonator that demonstrates insertion loss below 1.17 dB at the readout frequency and a maximum insertion loss of 1.53 dB across its full bandwidth for the lowest three states of a transmon qubit. We demonstrate qubit readout with an average single-shot fidelity of 98.1% in 600 ns; to assess the effect of larger dispersive shift, we implement a shelving protocol and achieve a fidelity of 99.0% in 300 ns.

We propose and demonstrate transmission-based dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit using an all-pass resonator, which preferentially emits readout photons toward the output.This is in contrast to typical readout schemes, which intentionally mismatch the feedline at one end so that the readout signal preferentially decays toward the output. We show that this intentional mismatch creates scaling challenges, including larger spread of effective resonator linewidths due to non-ideal impedance environments and added infrastructure for impedance matching. A future architecture using multiplexed all-pass readout resonators would avoid the need for intentional mismatch and potentially improve the scaling prospects of quantum computers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of „all-pass readout,“ we design and fabricate an all-pass readout resonator that demonstrates insertion loss below 1.17 dB at the readout frequency and a maximum insertion loss of 1.53 dB across its full bandwidth for the lowest three states of a transmon qubit. We demonstrate qubit readout with an average single-shot fidelity of 98.1% in 600 ns; to assess the effect of larger dispersive shift, we implement a shelving protocol and achieve a fidelity of 99.0% in 300 ns.

Quantum information processing at scale will require sufficiently stable and long-lived qubits, likely enabled by error-correction codes. Several recent superconducting-qubit experiments,however, reported observing intermittent spatiotemporally correlated errors that would be problematic for conventional codes, with ionizing radiation being a likely cause. Here, we directly measured the cosmic-ray contribution to spatiotemporally correlated qubit errors. We accomplished this by synchronously monitoring cosmic-ray detectors and qubit energy-relaxation dynamics of 10 transmon qubits distributed across a 5x5x0.35 mm3 silicon chip. Cosmic rays caused correlated errors at a rate of 1/(10 min), accounting for 17±1% of all such events. Our qubits responded to essentially all of the cosmic rays and their secondary particles incident on the chip, consistent with the independently measured arrival flux. Moreover, we observed that the landscape of the superconducting gap in proximity to the Josephson junctions dramatically impacts the qubit response to cosmic rays. Given the practical difficulties associated with shielding cosmic rays, our results indicate the importance of radiation hardening — for example, superconducting gap engineering — to the realization of robust quantum error correction.

We propose and demonstrate an architecture for fluxonium-fluxonium two-qubit gates mediated by transmon couplers (FTF, for fluxonium-transmon-fluxonium). Relative to architectures thatexclusively rely on a direct coupling between fluxonium qubits, FTF enables stronger couplings for gates using non-computational states while simultaneously suppressing the static controlled-phase entangling rate (ZZ) down to kHz levels, all without requiring strict parameter matching. Here we implement FTF with a flux-tunable transmon coupler and demonstrate a microwave-activated controlled-Z (CZ) gate whose operation frequency can be tuned over a 2 GHz range, adding frequency allocation freedom for FTF’s in larger systems. Across this range, state-of-the-art CZ gate fidelities were observed over many bias points and reproduced across the two devices characterized in this work. After optimizing both the operation frequency and the gate duration, we achieved peak CZ fidelities in the 99.85-99.9\% range. Finally, we implemented model-free reinforcement learning of the pulse parameters to boost the mean gate fidelity up to 99.922±0.009%, averaged over roughly an hour between scheduled training runs. Beyond the microwave-activated CZ gate we present here, FTF can be applied to a variety of other fluxonium gate schemes to improve gate fidelities and passively reduce unwanted ZZ interactions.

Superconducting quantum processors comprising flux-tunable data and coupler qubits are a promising platform for quantum computation. However, magnetic flux crosstalk between the flux-controllines and the constituent qubits impedes precision control of qubit frequencies, presenting a challenge to scaling this platform. In order to implement high-fidelity digital and analog quantum operations, one must characterize the flux crosstalk and compensate for it. In this work, we introduce a learning-based calibration protocol and demonstrate its experimental performance by calibrating an array of 16 flux-tunable transmon qubits. To demonstrate the extensibility of our protocol, we simulate the crosstalk matrix learning procedure for larger arrays of transmon qubits. We observe an empirically linear scaling with system size, while maintaining a median qubit frequency error below 300 kHz.