Demonstration of long-range correlations via susceptibility measurements in a one-dimensional superconducting Josephson spin chain

  1. Daniel M. Tennant,
  2. Xi Dai,
  3. Antonio J. Martinez,
  4. Robbyn Trappen,
  5. Denis Melanson,
  6. M. A. Yurtalan,
  7. Yongchao Tang,
  8. Salil Bedkihal,
  9. Rui Yang,
  10. Sergei Novikov,
  11. Jeffery A. Grover,
  12. Steven M. Disseler,
  13. James I. Basham,
  14. Rabindra Das,
  15. David K. Kim,
  16. Alexander J. Melville,
  17. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  18. Steven J. Weber,
  19. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  20. Andrew J. Kerman,
  21. Evgeny Mozgunov,
  22. Daniel A. Lidar,
  23. and Adrian Lupascu
Spin chains have long been considered an effective medium for long-range interactions, entanglement generation, and quantum state transfer. In this work, we explore the properties of
a spin chain implemented with superconducting flux circuits, designed to act as a connectivity medium between two superconducting qubits. The susceptibility of the chain is probed and shown to support long-range, cross chain correlations. In addition, interactions between the two end qubits, mediated by the coupler chain, are demonstrated. This work has direct applicability in near term quantum annealing processors as a means of generating long-range, coherent coupling between qubits.

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) as a Low-loss Dielectric for Superconducting Quantum Circuits and Qubits

  1. Joel I.J. Wang,
  2. Megan A. Yamoah,
  3. Qing Li,
  4. Amir Karamlou,
  5. Thao Dinh,
  6. Bharath Kannan,
  7. Jochen Braumüller,
  8. David Kim,
  9. Alexander J. Melville,
  10. Sarah E. Muschinske,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Kyle Serniak,
  13. Youngkyu Sung,
  14. Roni Winik,
  15. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  16. Mollie Schwartz,
  17. Kenji Watanabe,
  18. Takashi Taniguchi,
  19. Terry P. Orlando,
  20. Simon Gustavsson,
  21. Pablo Jarillo-Herrero,
  22. and William D. Oliver
Dielectrics with low loss at microwave frequencies are imperative for high-coherence solid-state quantum computing platforms. We study the dielectric loss of hexagonal boron nitride
(hBN) thin films in the microwave regime by measuring the quality factor of parallel-plate capacitors (PPCs) made of NbSe2-hBN-NbSe2 heterostructures integrated into superconducting circuits. The extracted microwave loss tangent of hBN is bounded to be at most in the mid-10-6 range in the low temperature, single-photon regime. We integrate hBN PPCs with aluminum Josephson junctions to realize transmon qubits with coherence times reaching 25 μs, consistent with the hBN loss tangent inferred from resonator measurements. The hBN PPC reduces the qubit feature size by approximately two-orders of magnitude compared to conventional all-aluminum coplanar transmons. Our results establish hBN as a promising dielectric for building high-coherence quantum circuits with substantially reduced footprint and, with a high energy participation that helps to reduce unwanted qubit cross-talk.

Improving qubit coherence using closed-loop feedback

  1. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  2. Roni Winik,
  3. Amir H. Karamlou,
  4. Jochen Braumüller,
  5. Agustin Di Paolo,
  6. Youngkyu Sung,
  7. Bharath Kannan,
  8. Morten Kjaergaard,
  9. David K. Kim,
  10. Alexander J. Melville,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. Simon Gustavsson,
  14. and William D. Oliver
Superconducting qubits are a promising platform for building a larger-scale quantum processor capable of solving otherwise intractable problems. In order for the processor to reach
practical viability, the gate errors need to be further suppressed and remain stable for extended periods of time. With recent advances in qubit control, both single- and two-qubit gate fidelities are now in many cases limited by the coherence times of the qubits. Here we experimentally employ closed-loop feedback to stabilize the frequency fluctuations of a superconducting transmon qubit, thereby increasing its coherence time by 26\% and reducing the single-qubit error rate from (8.5±2.1)×10−4 to (5.9±0.7)×10−4. Importantly, the resulting high-fidelity operation remains effective even away from the qubit flux-noise insensitive point, significantly increasing the frequency bandwidth over which the qubit can be operated with high fidelity. This approach is helpful in large qubit grids, where frequency crowding and parasitic interactions between the qubits limit their performance.

Microwave Package Design for Superconducting Quantum Processors

  1. Sihao Huang,
  2. Benjamin Lienhard,
  3. Greg Calusine,
  4. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  5. Jochen Braumüller,
  6. David K. Kim,
  7. Alexander J. Melville,
  8. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  9. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  10. Bharath Kannan,
  11. Terry P. Orlando,
  12. Simon Gustavsson,
  13. and William D. Oliver
Solid-state qubits with transition frequencies in the microwave regime, such as superconducting qubits, are at the forefront of quantum information processing. However, high-fidelity,
simultaneous control of superconducting qubits at even a moderate scale remains a challenge, partly due to the complexities of packaging these devices. Here, we present an approach to microwave package design focusing on material choices, signal line engineering, and spurious mode suppression. We describe design guidelines validated using simulations and measurements used to develop a 24-port microwave package. Analyzing the qubit environment reveals no spurious modes up to 11GHz. The material and geometric design choices enable the package to support qubits with lifetimes exceeding 350 {\mu}s. The microwave package design guidelines presented here address many issues relevant for near-term quantum processors.

Multi-level Quantum Noise Spectroscopy

  1. Youngkyu Sung,
  2. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  3. Jochen Braumüller,
  4. Fei Yan,
  5. Joel I-Jan Wang,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Roni Winik,
  8. Philip Krantz,
  9. Andreas Bengtsson,
  10. Alexander J. Melville,
  11. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  12. Mollie E. Schwartz,
  13. David K. Kim,
  14. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  15. Terry P. Orlando,
  16. Simon Gustavsson,
  17. and William D. Oliver
System noise identification is crucial to the engineering of robust quantum systems. Although existing quantum noise spectroscopy (QNS) protocols measure an aggregate amount of noise
affecting a quantum system, they generally cannot distinguish between the underlying processes that contribute to it. Here, we propose and experimentally validate a spin-locking-based QNS protocol that exploits the multi-level energy structure of a superconducting qubit to achieve two notable advances. First, our protocol extends the spectral range of weakly anharmonic qubit spectrometers beyond the present limitations set by their lack of strong anharmonicity. Second, the additional information gained from probing the higher-excited levels enables us to identify and distinguish contributions from different underlying noise mechanisms.

Impact of ionizing radiation on superconducting qubit coherence

  1. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  2. Amir H. Karamlou,
  3. John L. Orrell,
  4. Akshunna S. Dogra,
  5. Ben Loer,
  6. Francisca Vasconcelos,
  7. David K. Kim,
  8. Alexander J. Melville,
  9. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  10. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  11. Simon Gustavsson,
  12. Joseph A. Formaggio,
  13. Brent A. VanDevender,
  14. and William D. Oliver
The practical viability of any qubit technology stands on long coherence times and high-fidelity operations, with the superconducting qubit modality being a leading example. However,
superconducting qubit coherence is impacted by broken Cooper pairs, referred to as quasiparticles, with a density that is empirically observed to be orders of magnitude greater than the value predicted for thermal equilibrium by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. Previous work has shown that infrared photons significantly increase the quasiparticle density, yet even in the best isolated systems, it still remains higher than expected, suggesting that another generation mechanism exists. In this Letter, we provide evidence that ionizing radiation from environmental radioactive materials and cosmic rays contributes to this observed difference, leading to an elevated quasiparticle density that would ultimately limit superconducting qubits of the type measured here to coherence times in the millisecond regime. We further demonstrate that introducing radiation shielding reduces the flux of ionizing radiation and positively correlates with increased coherence time. Albeit a small effect for today’s qubits, reducing or otherwise mitigating the impact of ionizing radiation will be critical for realizing fault-tolerant superconducting quantum computers.

Silicon Hard-Stop Spacers for 3D Integration of Superconducting Qubits

  1. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  2. David K. Kim,
  3. Mollie E. Schwartz,
  4. Danna Rosenberg,
  5. Greg Calusine,
  6. Rabi Das,
  7. Alexander J. Melville,
  8. Jason Plant,
  9. Livia Racz,
  10. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  11. Donna Ruth-Yost,
  12. and William D. Oliver
As designs for superconducting qubits become more complex, 3D integration of two or more vertically bonded chips will become necessary to enable increased density and connectivity.
Precise control of the spacing between these chips is required for accurate prediction of circuit performance. In this paper, we demonstrate an improvement in the planarity of bonded superconducting qubit chips while retaining device performance by utilizing hard-stop silicon spacer posts. These silicon spacers are defined by etching several microns into a silicon substrate and are compatible with 3D-integrated qubit fabrication. This includes fabrication of Josephson junctions, superconducting air-bridge crossovers, underbump metallization and indium bumps. To qualify the integrated process, we demonstrate high-quality factor resonators on the etched surface and measure qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 40 {\mu}s) in the presence of silicon posts as near as 350 {\mu}m to the qubit.