Mediated interactions beyond the nearest neighbor in an array of superconducting qubits

  1. Yariv Yanay,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Terry P. Orlando,
  4. Simon Gustavsson,
  5. Charles Tahan,
  6. and William D. Oliver
We consider mediated interactions in an array of floating transmons, where each qubit capacitor consists of two superconducting pads galvanically isolated from ground. Each such pair
contributes two quantum degrees of freedom, one of which is used as a qubit, while the other remains fixed. However, these extraneous modes can generate coupling between the qubit modes that extends beyond the nearest neighbor. We present a general formalism describing the formation of this coupling and calculate it for a one-dimensional chain of transmons. We show that the strength of coupling and its range (that is, the exponential falloff) can be tuned independently via circuit design to realize a continuum from nearest-neighbor-only interactions to interactions that extend across the length of the chain. We present designs with capacitance and microwave simulations showing that various interaction configurations can be achieved in realistic circuits. Such coupling could be used in analog simulation of different quantum regimes or to increase connectivity in digital quantum systems. Thus mechanism must also be taken into account in other types of qubits with extraneous modes.

Quantum transport and localization in 1d and 2d tight-binding lattices

  1. Amir H. Karamlou,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Patrick Harrington,
  6. Bharath Kannan,
  7. David Kim,
  8. Morten Kjaergaard,
  9. Alexander Melville,
  10. Sarah Muschinske,
  11. Bethany Niedzielski,
  12. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  13. Roni Winik,
  14. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  15. Mollie Schwartz,
  16. Charles Tahan,
  17. Terry P. Orlando,
  18. Simon Gustavsson,
  19. and William D. Oliver
Particle transport and localization phenomena in condensed-matter systems can be modeled using a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian. The ideal experimental emulation of such a model
utilizes simultaneous, high-fidelity control and readout of each lattice site in a highly coherent quantum system. Here, we experimentally study quantum transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional tight-binding lattices, emulated by a fully controllable 3×3 array of superconducting qubits. We probe the propagation of entanglement throughout the lattice and extract the degree of localization in the Anderson and Wannier-Stark regimes in the presence of site-tunable disorder strengths and gradients. Our results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations and match theoretical predictions based on the tight-binding model. The demonstrated level of experimental control and accuracy in extracting the system observables of interest will enable the exploration of larger, interacting lattices where numerical simulations become intractable.

Probing quantum information propagation with out-of-time-ordered correlators

  1. Jochen Braumüller,
  2. Amir H. Karamlou,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Bharath Kannan,
  5. David Kim,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Alexander Melville,
  8. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  9. Youngkyu Sung,
  10. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  11. Roni Winik,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. Terry P. Orlando,
  14. Simon Gustavsson,
  15. Charles Tahan,
  16. and William D. Oliver
Interacting many-body quantum systems show a rich array of physical phenomena and dynamical properties, but are notoriously difficult to study: they are challenging analytically and
exponentially difficult to simulate on classical computers. Small-scale quantum information processors hold the promise to efficiently emulate these systems, but characterizing their dynamics is experimentally challenging, requiring probes beyond simple correlation functions and multi-body tomographic methods. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs), one of the most effective tools for studying quantum system evolution and processes like quantum thermalization. We implement a 3×3 two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard lattice with a superconducting circuit, study its time-reversibility by performing a Loschmidt echo, and measure OTOCs that enable us to observe the propagation of quantum information. A central requirement for our experiments is the ability to coherently reverse time evolution, which we achieve with a digital-analog simulation scheme. In the presence of frequency disorder, we observe that localization can partially be overcome with more particles present, a possible signature of many-body localization in two dimensions.

Realizing the two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard model with superconducting qubits

  1. Yariv Yanay,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Simon Gustavsson,
  4. William D. Oliver,
  5. and Charles Tahan
The pursuit of superconducting-based quantum computers has advanced the fabrication of and experimentation with custom lattices of qubits and resonators. Here, we describe a roadmap
to use present experimental capabilities to simulate an interacting many-body system of bosons and measure quantities that are exponentially difficult to calculate numerically. We focus on the two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard model implemented as an array of floating transmon qubits. We describe a control scheme for such a lattice that can perform individual qubit readout and show how the scheme enables the preparation of a highly-excited many-body state, in contrast with atomic implementations restricted to the ground state or thermal equilibrium. We discuss what observables could be accessed and how they could be used to better understand the properties of many-body systems, including the observation of the transition of eigenstate entanglement entropy scaling from area law behavior to volume law behavior

Right-sizing fluxonium against charge noise

  1. Ari Mizel,
  2. and Yariv Yanay
We analyze the charge-noise induced coherence time T2 of the fluxonium qubit as a function of the number of array junctions in the device, N. The pure dephasing rate decreases with
N, but we find that the relaxation rate increases, so T2 achieves an optimum as a function of N. This optimum can be much smaller than the number typically chosen in experiments, yielding a route to improved fluxonium coherence and simplified device fabrication at the same time.