Mediated interactions beyond the nearest neighbor in an array of superconducting qubits

  1. Yariv Yanay,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Terry P. Orlando,
  4. Simon Gustavsson,
  5. Charles Tahan,
  6. and William D. Oliver
We consider mediated interactions in an array of floating transmons, where each qubit capacitor consists of two superconducting pads galvanically isolated from ground. Each such pair
contributes two quantum degrees of freedom, one of which is used as a qubit, while the other remains fixed. However, these extraneous modes can generate coupling between the qubit modes that extends beyond the nearest neighbor. We present a general formalism describing the formation of this coupling and calculate it for a one-dimensional chain of transmons. We show that the strength of coupling and its range (that is, the exponential falloff) can be tuned independently via circuit design to realize a continuum from nearest-neighbor-only interactions to interactions that extend across the length of the chain. We present designs with capacitance and microwave simulations showing that various interaction configurations can be achieved in realistic circuits. Such coupling could be used in analog simulation of different quantum regimes or to increase connectivity in digital quantum systems. Thus mechanism must also be taken into account in other types of qubits with extraneous modes.

Quantum transport and localization in 1d and 2d tight-binding lattices

  1. Amir H. Karamlou,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Patrick Harrington,
  6. Bharath Kannan,
  7. David Kim,
  8. Morten Kjaergaard,
  9. Alexander Melville,
  10. Sarah Muschinske,
  11. Bethany Niedzielski,
  12. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  13. Roni Winik,
  14. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  15. Mollie Schwartz,
  16. Charles Tahan,
  17. Terry P. Orlando,
  18. Simon Gustavsson,
  19. and William D. Oliver
Particle transport and localization phenomena in condensed-matter systems can be modeled using a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian. The ideal experimental emulation of such a model
utilizes simultaneous, high-fidelity control and readout of each lattice site in a highly coherent quantum system. Here, we experimentally study quantum transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional tight-binding lattices, emulated by a fully controllable 3×3 array of superconducting qubits. We probe the propagation of entanglement throughout the lattice and extract the degree of localization in the Anderson and Wannier-Stark regimes in the presence of site-tunable disorder strengths and gradients. Our results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations and match theoretical predictions based on the tight-binding model. The demonstrated level of experimental control and accuracy in extracting the system observables of interest will enable the exploration of larger, interacting lattices where numerical simulations become intractable.

Probing quantum information propagation with out-of-time-ordered correlators

  1. Jochen Braumüller,
  2. Amir H. Karamlou,
  3. Yariv Yanay,
  4. Bharath Kannan,
  5. David Kim,
  6. Morten Kjaergaard,
  7. Alexander Melville,
  8. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  9. Youngkyu Sung,
  10. Antti Vepsäläinen,
  11. Roni Winik,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. Terry P. Orlando,
  14. Simon Gustavsson,
  15. Charles Tahan,
  16. and William D. Oliver
Interacting many-body quantum systems show a rich array of physical phenomena and dynamical properties, but are notoriously difficult to study: they are challenging analytically and
exponentially difficult to simulate on classical computers. Small-scale quantum information processors hold the promise to efficiently emulate these systems, but characterizing their dynamics is experimentally challenging, requiring probes beyond simple correlation functions and multi-body tomographic methods. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs), one of the most effective tools for studying quantum system evolution and processes like quantum thermalization. We implement a 3×3 two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard lattice with a superconducting circuit, study its time-reversibility by performing a Loschmidt echo, and measure OTOCs that enable us to observe the propagation of quantum information. A central requirement for our experiments is the ability to coherently reverse time evolution, which we achieve with a digital-analog simulation scheme. In the presence of frequency disorder, we observe that localization can partially be overcome with more particles present, a possible signature of many-body localization in two dimensions.

Universal non-adiabatic control of small-gap superconducting qubits

  1. Daniel L. Campbell,
  2. Yun-Pil Shim,
  3. Bharath Kannan,
  4. Roni Winik,
  5. Alexander Melville,
  6. Bethany M. Niedzielski,
  7. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  8. Charles Tahan,
  9. Simon Gustavsson,
  10. and William D. Oliver
Resonant transverse driving of a two-level system as viewed in the rotating frame couples two degenerate states at the Rabi frequency, an amazing equivalence that emerges in quantum
mechanics. While spectacularly successful at controlling natural and artificial quantum systems, certain limitations may arise (e.g., the achievable gate speed) due to non-idealities like the counter-rotating term. Here, we explore a complementary approach to quantum control based on non-resonant, non-adiabatic driving of a longitudinal parameter in the presence of a fixed transverse coupling. We introduce a superconducting composite qubit (CQB), formed from two capacitively coupled transmon qubits, which features a small avoided crossing — smaller than the environmental temperature — between two energy levels. We control this low-frequency CQB using solely baseband pulses, non-adiabatic transitions, and coherent Landau-Zener interference to achieve fast, high-fidelity, single-qubit operations with Clifford fidelities exceeding 99.7%. We also perform coupled qubit operations between two low-frequency CQBs. This work demonstrates that universal non-adiabatic control of low-frequency qubits is feasible using solely baseband pulses.

Realizing the two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard model with superconducting qubits

  1. Yariv Yanay,
  2. Jochen Braumüller,
  3. Simon Gustavsson,
  4. William D. Oliver,
  5. and Charles Tahan
The pursuit of superconducting-based quantum computers has advanced the fabrication of and experimentation with custom lattices of qubits and resonators. Here, we describe a roadmap
to use present experimental capabilities to simulate an interacting many-body system of bosons and measure quantities that are exponentially difficult to calculate numerically. We focus on the two-dimensional hard-core Bose-Hubbard model implemented as an array of floating transmon qubits. We describe a control scheme for such a lattice that can perform individual qubit readout and show how the scheme enables the preparation of a highly-excited many-body state, in contrast with atomic implementations restricted to the ground state or thermal equilibrium. We discuss what observables could be accessed and how they could be used to better understand the properties of many-body systems, including the observation of the transition of eigenstate entanglement entropy scaling from area law behavior to volume law behavior

Semiconductor-inspired superconducting quantum computing

  1. Yun-Pil Shim,
  2. and Charles Tahan
Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold
for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some almost magical and very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control with minimal overhead (zero overhead in 2-qubit gates), and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is especially suited to qubits based on variable super-semi junctions.

Superconducting-semiconductor quantum devices: from qubits to particle detectors

  1. Yun-Pil Shim,
  2. and Charles Tahan
Recent improvements in materials growth and fabrication techniques may finally allow for superconducting semiconductors to realize their potential. Here we build on a recent proposal
to construct superconducting devices such as wires, Josephson junctions, and qubits inside and out-of single crystal silicon or germanium. Using atomistic fabrication techniques such as STM hydrogen lithography, heavily-doped superconducting regions within a single crystal could be constructed. We describe the characteristic parameters of basic superconducting elements—a 1D wire and a tunneling Josephson junction—and estimate the values for boron-doped silicon. The epitaxial, single-crystal nature of these devices, along with the extreme flexibility in device design down to the single-atom scale, may enable lower-noise or new types of devices and physics. We consider applications for such super-silicon devices, showing that the state-of-the-art transmon qubit and the sought-after phase-slip qubit can both be realized. The latter qubit leverages the natural high kinetic inductance of these materials. Building on this, we explore how kinetic inductance based particle detectors (e.g., photon or phonon) could be realized with potential application in astronomy or nanomechanics. We discuss super-semi devices (such as in silicon, germanium, or diamond) which would not require atomistic fabrication approaches and could be realized today.

Bottom-up superconducting and Josephson junction devices inside a Group-IV semiconductor

  1. Yun-Pil Shim,
  2. and Charles Tahan
We propose superconducting devices made from precision hole-doped regions within a silicon (or germanium) single crystal. We analyze the properties of this superconducting semiconductor
and show that practical superconducting wires, Josephson tunnel junctions or weak links, SQUIDs, and qubits are realizable. This work motivates the pursuit of bottom-up superconductivity for improved or fundamentally different technology and physics.

Observation of Autler-Townes effect in a dispersively dressed Jaynes-Cummings system

  1. B. Suri,
  2. Z. K. Keane,
  3. R. Ruskov,
  4. Lev S. Bishop,
  5. Charles Tahan,
  6. S. Novikov,
  7. J. E. Robinson,
  8. F. C. Wellstood,
  9. and B. S. Palmer
Photon number splitting is observed in a transmon coupled to a superconducting quasi-lumped-element resonator in the strong dispersive limit. A thermal population of 5.474 GHz photons
at an effective resonator temperature of T = 120mK results in a weak n = 1 photon peak along with the n = 0 photon peak in the qubit spectrum in the absence of a coherent drive on the resonator. Two-tone spectroscopy using independent coupler and probe tones reveals an Autler-Townes splitting in the thermal n = 1 photon peak. The observed effect is explained accurately using the four lowest levels of the dispersively dressed qubit-resonator system and compared to results from numerical simulations of the steady-state master equation for the coupled system.