The ubiquitous noise in quantum system hinders the advancement of quantum information processing and has driven the emergence of different hardware-efficient quantum error correctionprotocols. Among them, qubits with structured noise, especially with biased noise, are one of the most promising platform to achieve fault-tolerance due to the high error thresholds of quantum error correction codes tailored for them. Nevertheless, their quantum operations are challenging and the demonstration of their performance beyond the fault-tolerant threshold remain incomplete. Here, we leverage Schrödinger cat states in a scalable planar superconducting nonlinear oscillator to thoroughly characterize the high-fidelity single-qubit quantum operations with systematic quantum tomography and benchmarking tools, demonstrating the state-of-the-art performance of operations crossing the fault-tolerant threshold of the XZZX surface code. These results thus embody a transformative milestone in the exploration of quantum systems with structured error channels. Notably, our framework is extensible to other types of structured-noise systems, paving the way for systematic characterization and validation of novel quantum platforms with structured noise.

Implementing fast and high-fidelity quantum operations using open-loop quantum optimal control relies on having an accurate model of the quantum dynamics. Any deviations between thismodel and the complete dynamics of the device, such as the presence of spurious modes or pulse distortions, can degrade the performance of optimal controls in practice. Here, we propose an experimentally simple approach to realize optimal quantum controls tailored to the device parameters and environment while specifically characterizing this quantum system. Concretely, we use physics-inspired machine learning to infer an accurate model of the dynamics from experimentally available data and then optimize our experimental controls on this trained model. We show the power and feasibility of this approach by optimizing arbitrary single-qubit operations on a superconducting transmon qubit, using detailed numerical simulations. We demonstrate that this framework produces an accurate description of the device dynamics under arbitrary controls, together with the precise pulses achieving arbitrary single-qubit gates with a high fidelity of about 99.99%.

Multi-level qudit systems are increasingly being explored as alternatives to traditional qubit systems due to their denser information storage and processing potential. However, quditsare more susceptible to decoherence than qubits due to increased loss channels, noise sensitivity, and crosstalk. To address these challenges, we develop protocols for dynamical decoupling (DD) of qudit systems based on the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We implement and experimentally verify these DD protocols on a superconducting transmon processor that supports qudit operation based on qutrits (d=3) and ququarts (d=4). Specifically, we demonstrate single-qudit DD sequences to decouple qutrits and ququarts from system-bath-induced decoherence. We also introduce two-qudit DD sequences designed to suppress the detrimental cross-Kerr couplings between coupled qudits. This allows us to demonstrate a significant improvement in the fidelity of time-evolved qutrit Bell states. Our results highlight the utility of leveraging DD to enable scalable qudit-based quantum computing.

Correlated errors in superconducting circuits due to nonequilibrium quasiparticles are a notable concern in efforts to achieve fault tolerant quantum computing. The propagation of quasiparticlescausing these correlated errors can potentially be mediated by phonons in the substrate. Therefore, methods that decouple devices from the substrate are possible solutions, such as isolating devices atop SiN membranes. In this work, we validate the compatibility of SiN membrane technology with high quality superconducting circuits, adding the technique to the community’s fabrication toolbox. We do so by fabricating superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators entirely atop a thin (∼110 nm) SiN layer, where the bulk Si originally supporting it has been etched away, achieving a suspended membrane where the shortest length to its thickness yields an aspect ratio of approximately 7.4×103. We compare these membrane resonators to on-substrate resonators on the same chip, finding similar internal quality factors ∼105 at single photon levels. Furthermore, we confirm that these membranes do not adversely affect the resonator thermalization rate. With these important benchmarks validated, this technique can be extended to qubits.

The Kerr-cat qubit is a bosonic qubit in which multi-photon Schrodinger cat states are stabilized by applying a two-photon drive to an oscillator with a Kerr nonlinearity. The suppressedbit-flip rate with increasing cat size makes this qubit a promising candidate to implement quantum error correction codes tailored for noise-biased qubits. However, achieving strong light-matter interactions necessary for stabilizing and controlling this qubit has traditionally required strong microwave drives that heat the qubit and degrade its performance. In contrast, increasing the coupling to the drive port removes the need for strong drives at the expense of large Purcell decay. By integrating an effective band-block filter on-chip, we overcome this trade-off and realize a Kerr-cat qubit in a scalable 2D superconducting circuit with high coherence. This filter provides 30 dB of isolation at the qubit frequency with negligible attenuation at the frequencies required for stabilization and readout. We experimentally demonstrate quantum non-demolition readout fidelity of 99.6% for a cat with 8 photons. Also, to have high-fidelity universal control over this qubit, we combine fast Rabi oscillations with a new demonstration of the X(90) gate through phase modulation of the stabilization drive. Finally, the lifetime in this architecture is examined as a function of the cat size of up to 10 photons in the oscillator achieving a bit-flip time higher than 1 ms and only a linear decrease in the phase-flip time, in good agreement with the theoretical analysis of the circuit. Our qubit shows promise as a building block for fault-tolerant quantum processors with a small footprint.

Quantum entanglement is one of the primary features which distinguishes quantum computers from classical computers. In gate-based quantum computing, the creation of entangled statesor the distribution of entanglement across a quantum processor often requires circuit depths which grow with the number of entangled qubits. However, in teleportation-based quantum computing, one can deterministically generate entangled states with a circuit depth that is constant in the number of qubits, provided that one has access to an entangled resource state, the ability to perform mid-circuit measurements, and can rapidly transmit classical information. In this work, aided by fast classical FPGA-based control hardware with a feedback latency of only 150 ns, we explore the utility of teleportation-based protocols for generating non-local, multi-partite entanglement between superconducting qubits. First, we demonstrate well-known protocols for generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and non-local CNOT gates in constant depth. Next, we utilize both protocols for implementing an unbounded fan-out (i.e., controlled-NOT-NOT) gate in constant depth between three non-local qubits. Finally, we demonstrate deterministic state teleportation and entanglement swapping between qubits on opposite side of our quantum processor.

High-dimensional quantum information processing has emerged as a promising avenue to transcend hardware limitations and advance the frontiers of quantum technologies. Harnessing theuntapped potential of the so-called qudits necessitates the development of quantum protocols beyond the established qubit methodologies. Here, we present a robust, hardware-efficient, and extensible approach for operating multidimensional solid-state systems using Raman-assisted two-photon interactions. To demonstrate its efficacy, we construct a set of multi-qubit operations, realize highly entangled multidimensional states including atomic squeezed states and Schrödinger cat states, and implement programmable entanglement distribution along a qudit array. Our work illuminates the quantum electrodynamics of strongly driven multi-qudit systems and provides the experimental foundation for the future development of high-dimensional quantum applications.

Realizing the advantages of quantum computation requires access to the full Hilbert space of states of many quantum bits (qubits). Thus, large-scale quantum computation faces the challengeof efficiently generating entanglement between many qubits. In systems with a limited number of direct connections between qubits, entanglement between non-nearest neighbor qubits is generated by a series of nearest neighbor gates, which exponentially suppresses the resulting fidelity. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel, on-chip photon exchange network. This photonic network is embedded in a superconducting quantum processor (QPU) to implement an arbitrarily reconfigurable qubit connectivity graph. We show long-range qubit-qubit interactions between qubits with a maximum spatial separation of 9.2 cm along a meandered bus resonator and achieve photon exchange rates up to gqq=2π×0.9 MHz. These experimental demonstrations provide a foundation to realize highly connected, reconfigurable quantum photonic networks and opens a new path towards modular quantum computing.

The quantum computation of molecular response properties on near-term quantum hardware is a topic of significant interest. While computing time-domain response properties is in principlestraightforward due to the natural ability of quantum computers to simulate unitary time evolution, circuit depth limitations restrict the maximum time that can be simulated and hence the extraction of frequency-domain properties. Computing properties directly in the frequency domain is therefore desirable, but the circuits require large depth when the typical hardware gate set consisting of single- and two-qubit gates is used. Here, we report the experimental quantum computation of the response properties of diatomic molecules directly in the frequency domain using a three-qubit iToffoli gate, enabling a reduction in circuit depth by a factor of two. We show that the molecular properties obtained with the iToffoli gate exhibit comparable or better agreement with theory than those obtained with the native CZ gates. Our work is among the first demonstrations of the practical usage of a native multi-qubit gate in quantum simulation, with diverse potential applications to the simulation of quantum many-body systems on near-term digital quantum computers.

The fundamental trade-off between robustness and tunability is a central challenge in the pursuit of quantum simulation and fault-tolerant quantum computation. In particular, many emergingquantum architectures are designed to achieve high coherence at the expense of having fixed spectra and consequently limited types of controllable interactions. Here, by adiabatically transforming fixed-frequency superconducting circuits into modifiable Floquet qubits, we demonstrate an XXZ Heisenberg interaction with fully adjustable anisotropy. This interaction model is on one hand the basis for many-body quantum simulation of spin systems, and on the other hand the primitive for an expressive quantum gate set. To illustrate the robustness and versatility of our Floquet protocol, we tailor the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and implement two-qubit iSWAP, CZ, and SWAP gates with estimated fidelities of 99.32(3)%, 99.72(2)%, and 98.93(5)%, respectively. In addition, we implement a Heisenberg interaction between higher energy levels and employ it to construct a three-qubit CCZ gate with a fidelity of 96.18(5)%. Importantly, the protocol is applicable to various fixed-frequency high-coherence platforms, thereby unlocking a suite of essential interactions for high-performance quantum information processing. From a broader perspective, our work provides compelling avenues for future exploration of quantum electrodynamics and optimal control using the Floquet framework.