Vortex-Meissner phase transition induced by two-tone-drive-engineered artificial gauge potential in the fermionic ladder constructed by superconducting qubit circuits

  1. Yan-Jun Zhao,
  2. Xun-Wei Xu,
  3. Hui Wang,
  4. Yu-xi Liu,
  5. and Wu-Ming Liu
We propose to periodically modulate the onsite energy via two-tone drives, which can be furthermore used to engineer artificial gauge potential. As an example, we show that the fermionic
ladder model penetrated with effective magnetic flux can be constructed by superconducting flux qubits using such two-tone-drive-engineered artificial gauge potential. In this superconducting system, the single-particle ground state can range from vortex phase to Meissner phase due to the competition between the interleg coupling strength and the effective magnetic flux. We also present the method to experimentally measure the chiral currents by the single-particle Rabi oscillations between adjacent qubits. In contrast to previous methods of generating artifical gauge potential, our proposal does not need the aid of auxiliary couplers and in principle remains valid only if the qubit circuit maintains enough anharmonicity. The fermionic ladder model with effective magnetic flux can also be interpreted as one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled model, which thus lay a foundation towards the realization of quantum spin Hall effect.

Quantum Fourier Transform in Oscillating Modes

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Frank Deppe,
  3. Re-Bing Wu,
  4. Luyan Sun,
  5. Yu-xi Liu,
  6. Yuki Nojiri,
  7. Stefan Pogorzalek,
  8. Michael Renger,
  9. Matti Partanen,
  10. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  11. Achim Marx,
  12. and Rudolf Gross
Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a key ingredient of many quantum algorithms. In typical applications such as phase estimation, a considerable number of ancilla qubits and gates are
used to form a Hilbert space large enough for high-precision results. Qubit recycling reduces the number of ancilla qubits to one, but it is only applicable to semi-classical QFT and requires repeated measurements and feedforward within the coherence time of the qubits. In this work, we explore a novel approach based on resonators that forms a high-dimensional Hilbert space for the realization of QFT. By employing the perfect state-transfer method, we map an unknown multi-qubit state to a single resonator, and obtain the QFT state in the second oscillator through cross-Kerr interaction and projective measurement. A quantitive analysis shows that our method allows for high-dimensional and fully-quantum QFT employing the state-of-the-art superconducting quantum circuits. This paves the way for implementing various QFT related quantum algorithms.

Tuning coupling between superconducting resonators with collective qubits

  1. Qi-Ming Chen,
  2. Re-Bing Wu,
  3. Luyan Sun,
  4. and Yu-xi Liu
By coupling multiple artificial atoms simultaneously to two superconducting resonators, we construct a quantum switch that controls the resonator-resonator coupling strength from zero
to a large value proportional to the number of qubits. This process is implemented by switching the qubits among different \emph{subradiant states}, where the microwave photons decayed from different qubits interfere destructively so that the coupling strength keeps stable against environmental noise. Based on a two-step control scheme, the coupling strength can be switched at the \emph{nanosecond} scale while the qubits are maintained at the coherent optimal point. We also use the quantum switch to connect multiple resonators with a programmable network topology, and demonstrate its potential applications in quantum simulation and scalable quantum information storage and processing.

Topological edge states and pumping in a chain of coupled superconducting qubits

  1. Xiu Gu,
  2. Shu Chen,
  3. and Yu-xi Liu
Topological insulators have inspired the study with various quantum simulators. Exploiting the tunability of the qubit frequency and qubit-qubit coupling, we show that a superconducting
qubit chain can simulate various topological band models. When the system is restricted to the single-spin excitation subspace, the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model can be equivalently simulated by alternating the coupling strength between neighboring qubits. The existence of topological edge states in this qubit chain is demonstrated in the quench dynamics after the first qubit is excited. This excitation propagates along the chain where the qubit-qubit coupling is homogeneous. In contrast, in our qubit chain, the spin-up state localizes at the first qubit and the rest qubits remain in the spin-down state. We further show that the spin-up state can be transported along the chain by modulating the coupling strengths and the qubit frequencies. This demonstrates adiabatic pumping based on the Rice-Mele model. Moreover, we also discuss possible ways to construct other topological models with different topological phenomena within the current technology of superconducting qubits.

Microwave photonics with superconducting quantum circuits

  1. Xiu Gu,
  2. Anton Frisk Kockum,
  3. Adam Miranowicz,
  4. Yu-xi Liu,
  5. and Franco Nori
In the past 20 years, impressive progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically in superconducting quantum circuits, which provide a platform for manipulating microwave
photons. This emerging field of superconducting quantum microwave circuits has been driven by many new interesting phenomena in microwave photonics and quantum information processing. For instance, the interaction between superconducting quantum circuits and single microwave photons can reach the regimes of strong, ultra-strong, and even deep-strong coupling. Many higher-order effects, unusual and less familiar in traditional cavity quantum electrodynamics with natural atoms, have been experimentally observed, e.g., giant Kerr effects, multi-photon processes, and single-atom induced bistability of microwave photons. These developments may lead to improved understanding of the counterintuitive properties of quantum mechanics, and speed up applications ranging from microwave photonics to superconducting quantum information processing. In this article, we review experimental and theoretical progress in microwave photonics with superconducting quantum circuits. We hope that this global review can provide a useful roadmap for this rapidly developing field.

Vacuum induced Aulter-Townes splitting in a superconducting artificial atom

  1. Z.H. Peng,
  2. J.H. Ding,
  3. Y. Zhou,
  4. L.L. Ying,
  5. Z. Wang,
  6. L. Zhou,
  7. L.M. Kuang,
  8. Yu-xi Liu,
  9. O. Astfiev,
  10. and J. S. Tsai
We study experimentally a vacuum induced Aulter-Townes doublet in a superconducting three-level artificial atom strongly coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator and simultaneously
to a transmission line. The Aulter-Townes splitting is observed in the reflection spectrum of the three-level atom when the transition between two excited states is resonant with the resonator. By varying an amplitude of the driving field applied to the resonator, we observe quantum-to-classical transition of the Aulter-Townes splitting. Our results may pave the way for the control of microwaves by single photons.

An efficient and compact quantum switch for quantum circuits

  1. Yulin Wu,
  2. Li-Ping Yang,
  3. Yarui Zheng,
  4. Hui Deng,
  5. Zhiguang Yan,
  6. Yanjun Zhao,
  7. Keqiang Huang,
  8. William J. Munro,
  9. Kae Nemoto,
  10. Dong-Ning Zheng,
  11. C. P. Sun,
  12. Yu-xi Liu,
  13. Xiaobo Zhu,
  14. and Li Lu
The engineering of quantum devices has reached the stage where we now have small scale quantum processors containing multiple interacting qubits within them. Simple quantum circuits
have been demonstrated and scaling up to larger numbers is underway. However as the number of qubits in these processors increases, it becomes challenging to implement switchable or tunable coherent coupling among them. The typical approach has been to detune each qubit from others or the quantum bus it connected to, but as the number of qubits increases this becomes problematic to achieve in practice due to frequency crowding issues. Here, we demonstrate that by applying a fast longitudinal control field to the target qubit, we can turn off its couplings to other qubits or buses (in principle on/off ratio higher than 100 dB). This has important implementations in superconducting circuits as it means we can keep the qubits at their optimal points, where the coherence properties are greatest, during coupling/decoupling processing. Our approach suggests a new way to control coupling among qubits and data buses that can be naturally scaled up to large quantum processors without the need for auxiliary circuits and yet be free of the frequency crowding problems.

Polariton states in circuit QED for electromagnetically induced transparency

  1. Xiu Gu,
  2. Sai-nan Huai,
  3. Franco Nori,
  4. and Yu-xi Liu
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been extensively studied in various systems. However, it is not easy to observe in superconducting quantum circuits (SQCs), because
the Rabi frequency of the strong controlling field corresponding to EIT is limited by the decay rates of the SQCs. Here, we show that EIT can be achieved by engineering decay rates in a superconducting circuit QED system through a classical driving field on the qubit. Without such a driving field, the superconducting qubit and the cavity field are approximately decoupled in the large detuning regime, and thus the eigenstates of the system are approximately product states of the cavity field and qubit states. However, the driving field can strongly mix these product states and so-called polariton states can be formed. The weights of the states for the qubit and cavity field in the polariton states can be tuned by the driving field, and thus the decay rates of the polariton states can be changed. We choose a three-level system with Λ-type transitions in such a driven circuit QED system, and demonstrate how EIT and ATS can be realized in this compound system. We believe that this study will be helpful for EIT experiments using SQCs.

Realization of microwave amplification, attenuation, and frequency conversion using a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit

  1. Yan-Jun Zhao,
  2. Jiang-Hao Ding,
  3. Z.H. Peng,
  4. and Yu-xi Liu
Using different configurations of applied strong driving and weak probe fields, we find that only a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit (SQC) is enough to realize amplification,
attenuation and frequency conversion of microwave fields. Such a three-level SQC has to possess Δ-type cyclic transitions. Different from the parametric amplification (attenuation) and frequency conversion in nonlinear optical media, the real energy levels of the three-level SQC are involved in the energy exchange when these processes are completed. We mainly show the efficiencies of the amplification and the frequency conversion for different types of driving fields. Our study provides a new method to amplify (attenuate) microwave, realize frequency conversion, and also lays a foundation for generating single or entangled microwave photon states using a single three-level SQC.

Coherent population transfer between weakly-coupled states in a ladder-type superconducting qutrit

  1. H. K. Xu,
  2. W. Y. Liu,
  3. G. M. Xue,
  4. F. F. Su,
  5. H. Deng,
  6. Ye Tian,
  7. D. N. Zheng,
  8. Siyuan Han,
  9. Y. P. Zhong,
  10. H. Wang,
  11. Yu-Xi Liu,
  12. and S. P. Zhao
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between un- or weakly-coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient
quantum gate, qubit entanglement, and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of STIRAP in a superconducting phase qutrit – a ladder-type system in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second-excited state via the dark state subspace. The result agrees well with the numerical simulation of the master equation, which further demonstrates that with the state-of-the-art superconducting qutrits the transfer efficiency readily exceeds 99% while keeping the population in the first-excited state below 1%. We show that population transfer via STIRAP is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared to that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring STIRAP for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms.