Direct implementation of a perceptron in superconducting circuit quantum hardware

  1. Marek Pechal,
  2. Federico Roy,
  3. Samuel A. Wilkinson,
  4. Gian Salis,
  5. Max Werninghaus,
  6. Michael J. Hartmann,
  7. and Stefan Filipp
The utility of classical neural networks as universal approximators suggests that their quantum analogues could play an important role in quantum generalizations of machine-learning
methods. Inspired by the proposal in [Torrontegui and García-Ripoll 2019 EPL 125 30004], we demonstrate a superconducting qubit implementation of an adiabatic controlled gate, which generalizes the action of a classical perceptron as the basic building block of a quantum neural network. We show full control over the steepness of the perceptron activation function, the input weight and the bias by tuning the adiabatic gate length, the coupling between the qubits and the frequency of the applied drive, respectively. In its general form, the gate realizes a multi-qubit entangling operation in a single step, whose decomposition into single- and two-qubit gates would require a number of gates that is exponential in the number of qubits. Its demonstrated direct implementation as perceptron in quantum hardware may therefore lead to more powerful quantum neural networks when combined with suitable additional standard gates.

Electric fields for light: Propagation of microwave photons along a synthetic dimension

  1. Nathan R. A. Lee,
  2. Marek Pechal,
  3. E. Alex Wollack,
  4. Patricio Arrangoiz-Arriola,
  5. Zhaoyou Wang,
  6. and Amir H. Safavi-Naeini
The evenly-spaced modes of an electromagnetic resonator are coupled to each other by appropriate time-modulation, leading to dynamics analogous to those of particles hopping between
different sites of a lattice. This substitution of a real spatial dimension of a lattice with a „synthetic'“ dimension in frequency space greatly reduces the hardware complexity of an analog quantum simulator. Complex control and read-out of a highly multi-moded structure can thus be accomplished with very few physical control lines. We demonstrate this concept with microwave photons in a superconducting transmission line resonator by modulating the system parameters at frequencies near the resonator’s free spectral range and observing propagation of photon wavepackets in time domain. The linear propagation dynamics are equivalent to a tight-binding model, which we probe by measuring scattering parameters between frequency sites. We extract an approximate tight-binding dispersion relation for the synthetic lattice and initialize photon wavepackets with well-defined quasimomenta and group velocities. As an example application of this platform in simulating a physical system, we demonstrate Bloch oscillations associated with a particle in a periodic potential and subject to a constant external field. The simulated field strongly affects the photon dynamics despite photons having zero charge. Our observation of photon dynamics along a synthetic frequency dimension generalizes immediately to topological photonics and single-photon power levels, and expands the range of physical systems addressable by quantum simulation.

Quantum communication with time-bin encoded microwave photons

  1. Philipp Kurpiers,
  2. Marek Pechal,
  3. Baptiste Royer,
  4. Paul Magnard,
  5. Theo Walter,
  6. Johannes Heinsoo,
  7. Yves Salathé,
  8. Abdulkadir Akin,
  9. Simon Storz,
  10. Jean-Claude Besse,
  11. Simone Gasparinetti,
  12. Alexandre Blais,
  13. and Andreas Wallraff
Heralding techniques are useful in quantum communication to circumvent losses without resorting to error correction schemes or quantum repeaters. Such techniques are realized, for example,
by monitoring for photon loss at the receiving end of the quantum link while not disturbing the transmitted quantum state. We describe and experimentally benchmark a scheme that incorporates error detection in a quantum channel connecting two transmon qubits using traveling microwave photons. This is achieved by encoding the quantum information as a time-bin superposition of a single photon, which simultaneously realizes high communication rates and high fidelities. The presented scheme is straightforward to implement in circuit QED and is fully microwave-controlled, making it an interesting candidate for future modular quantum computing architectures.

Superconducting circuit quantum computing with nanomechanical resonators as storage

  1. Marek Pechal,
  2. Patricio Arrangoiz-Arriola,
  3. and Amir H. Safavi-Naeini
We analyze the quantum information processing capability of a superconducting transmon circuit used to mediate interactions between quantum information stored in a collection of phononic
crystal cavity resonators. Having only a single processing element to be controlled externally makes this approach significantly less hardware-intensive than traditional architectures with individual control of each qubit. Moreover, when compared with the commonly considered alternative approach using coplanar waveguide or 3d cavity microwave resonators for storage, the nanomechanical resonators offer both very long lifetime and small size — two conflicting requirements for microwave resonators. A detailed gate error analysis leads to an optimal value for the qubit-resonator coupling rate as a function of the number of mechanical resonators in the system. For a given set of system parameters, a specific amount of coupling and number of resonators is found to optimize the quantum volume, an approximate measure for the computational capacity of a system. We see this volume is higher in the proposed hybrid nanomechanical architecture than in the competing on-chip electromagnetic approach.

Fast and Unconditional All-Microwave Reset of a Superconducting Qubit

  1. Paul Magnard,
  2. Philipp Kurpiers,
  3. Baptiste Royer,
  4. Theo Walter,
  5. Jean-Claude Besse,
  6. Simone Gasparinetti,
  7. Marek Pechal,
  8. Johannes Heinsoo,
  9. Simon Storz,
  10. Alexandre Blais,
  11. and Andreas Wallraff
Active qubit reset is a key operation in many quantum algorithms, and particularly in error correction codes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a reset scheme of a three level transmon
artificial atom coupled to a large bandwidth resonator. The reset protocol uses a microwave-induced interaction between the |f,0⟩ and |g,1⟩ states of the coupled transmon-resonator system, with |g⟩ and |f⟩ denoting the ground and second excited states of the transmon, and |0⟩ and |1⟩ the photon Fock states of the resonator. We characterize the reset process and demonstrate reinitialization of the transmon-resonator system to its ground state with 0.2% residual excitation in less than 500ns. Our protocol is of practical interest as it has no requirements on the architecture, beyond those for fast and efficient single-shot readout of the transmon, and does not require feedback.

Deterministic Quantum State Transfer and Generation of Remote Entanglement using Microwave Photons

  1. Philipp Kurpiers,
  2. Paul Magnard,
  3. Theo Walter,
  4. Baptiste Royer,
  5. Marek Pechal,
  6. Johannes Heinsoo,
  7. Yves Salathé,
  8. Abdulkadir Akin,
  9. Simon Storz,
  10. Jean-Claude Besse,
  11. Simone Gasparinetti,
  12. Alexandre Blais,
  13. and Andreas Wallraff
Sharing information coherently between nodes of a quantum network is at the foundation of distributed quantum information processing. In this scheme, the computation is divided into
subroutines and performed on several smaller quantum registers connected by classical and quantum channels. A direct quantum channel, which connects nodes deterministically, rather than probabilistically, is advantageous for fault-tolerant quantum computation because it reduces the threshold requirements and can achieve larger entanglement rates. Here, we implement deterministic state transfer and entanglement protocols between two superconducting qubits fabricated on separate chips. Superconducting circuits constitute a universal quantum node capable of sending, receiving, storing, and processing quantum information. Our implementation is based on an all-microwave cavity-assisted Raman process which entangles or transfers the qubit state of a transmon-type artificial atom to a time-symmetric itinerant single photon. We transfer qubit states at a rate of 50kHz using the emitted photons which are absorbed at the receiving node with a probability of 98.1±0.1% achieving a transfer process fidelity of 80.02±0.07%. We also prepare on demand remote entanglement with a fidelity as high as 78.9±0.1%. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a master equation description of the system. This deterministic quantum protocol has the potential to be used as a backbone of surface code quantum error correction across different nodes of a cryogenic network to realize large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computation in the circuit quantum electrodynamic architecture.

Single-Shot Quantum Non-Demolition Detection of Itinerant Microwave Photons

  1. Jean-Claude Besse,
  2. Simone Gasparinetti,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Theo Walter,
  5. Philipp Kurpiers,
  6. Marek Pechal,
  7. Christopher Eichler,
  8. and Andreas Wallraff
Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum non-demolition detector
for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in single shot, we reach an internal photon detection fidelity of 71%, limited by the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum non-demolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.

Millimeter-wave interconnects for microwave-frequency quantum machines

  1. Marek Pechal,
  2. and Amir H. Safavi-Naeini
Superconducting microwave circuits form a versatile platform for storing and manipulating quantum information. A major challenge to further scalability is to find approaches for connecting
these systems over long distances and at high rates. One approach is to convert the quantum state of a microwave circuit to optical photons that can be transmitted over kilometers at room temperature with little loss. Many proposals for electro-optic conversion between microwave and optics use optical driving of a weak three-wave mixing nonlinearity to convert the frequency of an excitation. Residual absorption of this optical pump leads to heating, which is problematic at cryogenic temperatures. Here we propose an alternative approach where a nonlinear superconducting circuit is driven to interconvert between microwave-frequency and millimeter-wave-frequency (300 GHz) photons. To understand the potential for quantum conversion between microwave and mm-wave photons, we consider the driven four-wave mixing quantum dynamics of nonlinear circuits. In contrast to the linear dynamics of the driven three-wave mixing converters, the proposed four-wave mixing converter has nonlinear decoherence channels that lead to a more complex parameter space of couplings and pump powers that we map out. We consider physical realizations of such converter circuits by deriving theoretically the upper bound on the maximum obtainable nonlinear coupling between any two modes in a lossless circuit, and synthesizing an optimal circuit based on realistic materials that saturates this bound. Our proposed circuit dissipates less than 10−9 times the energy of current electro-optic converters per qubit. Finally, we outline the quantum link budget for optical, microwave, and mm-wave connections, showing that our approach is viable for realizing interconnected quantum processors for intracity or quantum datacenter environments.

Correlations and entanglement of microwave photons emitted in a cascade decay

  1. Simone Gasparinetti,
  2. Marek Pechal,
  3. Jean-Claude Besse,
  4. Mintu Mondal,
  5. Christopher Eichler,
  6. and Andreas Wallraff
An excited emitter decays by radiating a photon into a quantized mode of the electromagnetic field, a process known as spontaneous emission. If the emitter is driven to a higher excited
state, it radiates multiple photons in a cascade decay. Atomic and biexciton cascades have been exploited as sources of polarization-entangled photon pairs. Because the photons are emitted sequentially, their intensities are strongly correlated in time, as measured in a double-beam coincidence experiment. Perhaps less intuitively, their phases can also be correlated, provided a single emitter is deterministically prepared into a superposition state, and the emitted radiation is detected in a phase-sensitive manner and with high efficiency. Here we have met these requirements by using a superconducting artificial atom, coherently driven to its second-excited state and decaying into a well-defined microwave mode. Our results highlight the coherent nature of cascade decay and demonstrate a novel protocol to generate entanglement between itinerant field modes.

Measurement of a Vacuum-Induced Geometric Phase

  1. Simone Gasparinetti,
  2. Simon Berger,
  3. Abdufarrukh A. Abdumalikov,
  4. Marek Pechal,
  5. Stefan Filipp,
  6. and Andreas J. Wallraff
Berry’s geometric phase naturally appears when a quantum system is driven by an external field whose parameters are slowly and cyclically changed. A variation in the coupling
between the system and the external field can also give rise to a geometric phase, even when the field is in the vacuum state or any other Fock state. Here we demonstrate the appearance of a vacuum-induced Berry phase in an artificial atom, a superconducting transmon, interacting with a single mode of a microwave cavity. As we vary the phase of the interaction, the artificial atom acquires a geometric phase determined by the path traced out in the combined Hilbert space of the atom and the quantum field. Our ability to control this phase opens new possibilities for the geometric manipulation of atom-cavity systems also in the context of quantum information processing.