Implementation of Conditional-Phase Gates based on tunable ZZ-Interactions

  1. Michele C. Collodo,
  2. Johannes Herrmann,
  3. Nathan Lacroix,
  4. Christian Kraglund Andersen,
  5. Ants Remm,
  6. Stefania Lazar,
  7. Jean-Claude Besse,
  8. Theo Walter,
  9. Andreas Wallraff,
  10. and Christopher Eichler
High fidelity two-qubit gates exhibiting low crosstalk are essential building blocks for gate-based quantum information processing. In superconducting circuits two-qubit gates are typically
based either on RF-controlled interactions or on the in-situ tunability of qubit frequencies. Here, we present an alternative approach using a tunable cross-Kerr-type ZZ-interaction between two qubits, which we realize by a flux-tunable coupler element. We control the ZZ-coupling rate over three orders of magnitude to perform a rapid (38 ns), high-contrast, low leakage (0.14 %) conditional-phase CZ gate with a fidelity of 97.9 % without relying on the resonant interaction with a non-computational state. Furthermore, by exploiting the direct nature of the ZZ-coupling, we easily access the entire conditional-phase gate family by adjusting only a single control parameter.

Realizing a Deterministic Source of Multipartite-Entangled Photonic Qubits

  1. Jean-Claude Besse,
  2. Kevin Reuer,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Arne Wulff,
  5. Lucien Wernli,
  6. Adrian Copetudo,
  7. Daniel Malz,
  8. Paul Magnard,
  9. Abdulkadir Akin,
  10. Mihai Gabureac,
  11. Graham J. Norris,
  12. J. Ignacio Cirac,
  13. Andreas Wallraff,
  14. and Christopher Eichler
Sources of entangled electromagnetic radiation are a cornerstone in quantum information processing and offer unique opportunities for the study of quantum many-body physics in a controlled
experimental setting. While multi-mode entangled states of radiation have been generated in various platforms, all previous experiments are either probabilistic or restricted to generate specific types of states with a moderate entanglement length. Here, we demonstrate the fully deterministic generation of purely photonic entangled states such as the cluster, GHZ, and W state by sequentially emitting microwave photons from a controlled auxiliary system into a waveguide. We tomographically reconstruct the entire quantum many-body state for up to N=4 photonic modes and infer the quantum state for even larger N from process tomography. We estimate that localizable entanglement persists over a distance of approximately ten photonic qubits, outperforming any previous deterministic scheme.

Parity Detection of Propagating Microwave Fields

  1. Jean-Claude Besse,
  2. Simone Gasparinetti,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Theo Walter,
  5. Ants Remm,
  6. Jonas Krause,
  7. Christopher Eichler,
  8. and Andreas Wallraff
The parity of the number of elementary excitations present in a quantum system provides important insights into its physical properties. Parity measurements are used, for example, to
tomographically reconstruct quantum states or to determine if a decay of an excitation has occurred, information which can be used for quantum error correction in computation or communication protocols. Here we demonstrate a versatile parity detector for propagating microwaves, which distinguishes between radiation fields containing an even or odd number n of photons, both in a single-shot measurement and without perturbing the parity of the detected field. We showcase applications of the detector for direct Wigner tomography of propagating microwaves and heralded generation of Schrödinger cat states. This parity detection scheme is applicable over a broad frequency range and may prove useful, for example, for heralded or fault-tolerant quantum communication protocols.

Single-Shot Quantum Non-Demolition Detection of Itinerant Microwave Photons

  1. Jean-Claude Besse,
  2. Simone Gasparinetti,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Theo Walter,
  5. Philipp Kurpiers,
  6. Marek Pechal,
  7. Christopher Eichler,
  8. and Andreas Wallraff
Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum non-demolition detector
for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in single shot, we reach an internal photon detection fidelity of 71%, limited by the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum non-demolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.

Studying Light-Harvesting Models with Superconducting Circuits

  1. Anton Potočnik,
  2. Arno Bargerbos,
  3. Florian A. Y. N. Schröder,
  4. Saeed A. Khan,
  5. Michele C. Collodo,
  6. Simone Gasparinetti,
  7. Yves Salathé,
  8. Celestino Creatore,
  9. Christopher Eichler,
  10. Hakan E. Türeci,
  11. Alex W. Chin,
  12. and Andreas Wallraff
The process of photosynthesis, the main source of energy in the animate world, converts sunlight into chemical energy. The surprisingly high efficiency of this process is believed to
be enabled by an intricate interplay between the quantum nature of molecular structures in photosynthetic complexes and their interaction with the environment. Investigating these effects in biological samples is challenging due to their complex and disordered structure. Here we experimentally demonstrate a new approach for studying photosynthetic models based on superconducting quantum circuits. In particular, we demonstrate the unprecedented versatility and control of our method in an engineered three-site model of a pigment protein complex with realistic parameters scaled down in energy by a factor of 105. With this system we show that the excitation transport between quantum coherent sites disordered in energy can be enabled through the interaction with environmental noise. We also show that the efficiency of the process is maximized for structured noise resembling intramolecular phononic environments found in photosynthetic complexes.

Efficient single sideband microwave to optical conversion using an electro-optical whispering gallery mode resonator

  1. Alfredo Rueda,
  2. Florian Sedlmeir,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Ulrich Vogl,
  5. Birgit Stiller,
  6. Gerhard Schunk,
  7. Dmitry V. Strekalov,
  8. Christoph Marquardt,
  9. Johannes M. Fink,
  10. Oskar Painter,
  11. Gerd Leuchs,
  12. and Harald G. L. Schwefel
Linking classical microwave electrical circuits to the optical telecommunication band is at the core of modern communication. Future quantum information networks will require coherent
microwave-to-optical conversion to link electronic quantum processors and memories via low-loss optical telecommunication networks. Efficient conversion can be achieved with electro-optical modulators operating at the single microwave photon level. In the standard electro-optic modulation scheme this is impossible because both, up- and downconverted, sidebands are necessarily present. Here we demonstrate true single sideband up- or downconversion in a triply resonant whispering gallery mode resonator by explicitly addressing modes with asymmetric free spectral range. Compared to previous experiments, we show a three orders of magnitude improvement of the electro-optical conversion efficiency reaching 0.1% photon number conversion for a 10GHz microwave tone at 0.42mW of optical pump power. The presented scheme is fully compatible with existing superconducting 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics technology and can be used for non-classical state conversion and communication. Our conversion bandwidth is larger than 1MHz and not fundamentally limited.