High-coherence superconducting qubits made using industry-standard, advanced semiconductor manufacturing

  1. Jacques Van Damme,
  2. Shana Massar,
  3. Rohith Acharya,
  4. Tsvetan Ivanov,
  5. Daniel Perez Lozano,
  6. Yann Canvel,
  7. Mael Demarets,
  8. Diziana Vangoidsenhoven,
  9. Yannick Hermans,
  10. Ju-Geng Lai,
  11. Vadiraj Rao,
  12. Massimo Mongillo,
  13. Danny Wan,
  14. Jo De Boeck,
  15. Anton Potocnik,
  16. and Kristiaan De Greve
The development of superconducting qubit technology has shown great potential for the construction of practical quantum computers. As the complexity of quantum processors continues
to grow, the need for stringent fabrication tolerances becomes increasingly critical. Utilizing advanced industrial fabrication processes could facilitate the necessary level of fabrication control to support the continued scaling of quantum processors. However, these industrial processes are currently not optimized to produce high coherence devices, nor are they a priori compatible with the commonly used approaches to make superconducting qubits. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time superconducting transmon qubits manufactured in a 300 mm CMOS pilot line, using industrial fabrication methods, with resulting relaxation and coherence times already exceeding 100 microseconds. We show across-wafer, large-scale statistics studies of coherence, yield, variability, and aging that confirm the validity of our approach. The presented industry-scale fabrication process, using exclusively optical lithography and reactive ion etching, shows performance and yield similar to the conventional laboratory-style techniques utilizing metal lift-off, angled evaporation, and electron-beam writing. Moreover, it offers potential for further upscaling by including three-dimensional integration and additional process optimization using advanced metrology and judicious choice of processing parameters and splits. This result marks the advent of more reliable, large-scale, truly CMOS-compatible fabrication of superconducting quantum computing processors.

Rapid high-fidelity multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits

  1. Johannes Heinsoo,
  2. Christian Kraglund Andersen,
  3. Ants Remm,
  4. Sebastian Krinner,
  5. Theodore Walter,
  6. Yves Salathé,
  7. Simone Gasperinetti,
  8. Jean-Claude Besse,
  9. Anton Potočnik,
  10. Christopher Eichler,
  11. and Andreas Wallraff
The duration and fidelity of qubit readout is a critical factor for applications in quantum information processing as it limits the fidelity of algorithms which reuse qubits after measurement
or apply feedback based on the measurement result. Here we present fast multiplexed readout of five qubits in a single 1.2 GHz wide readout channel. Using a readout pulse length of 80 ns and populating readout resonators for less than 250 ns we find an average correct assignment probability for the five measured qubits to be 97%. The differences between the individual readout errors and those found when measuring the qubits simultaneously are within 1%. We employ individual Purcell filters for each readout resonator to suppress off-resonant driving, which we characterize by the dephasing imposed on unintentionally measured qubits. We expect the here presented readout scheme to become particularly useful for the selective readout of individual qubits in multi-qubit quantum processors.

Studying Light-Harvesting Models with Superconducting Circuits

  1. Anton Potočnik,
  2. Arno Bargerbos,
  3. Florian A. Y. N. Schröder,
  4. Saeed A. Khan,
  5. Michele C. Collodo,
  6. Simone Gasparinetti,
  7. Yves Salathé,
  8. Celestino Creatore,
  9. Christopher Eichler,
  10. Hakan E. Türeci,
  11. Alex W. Chin,
  12. and Andreas Wallraff
The process of photosynthesis, the main source of energy in the animate world, converts sunlight into chemical energy. The surprisingly high efficiency of this process is believed to
be enabled by an intricate interplay between the quantum nature of molecular structures in photosynthetic complexes and their interaction with the environment. Investigating these effects in biological samples is challenging due to their complex and disordered structure. Here we experimentally demonstrate a new approach for studying photosynthetic models based on superconducting quantum circuits. In particular, we demonstrate the unprecedented versatility and control of our method in an engineered three-site model of a pigment protein complex with realistic parameters scaled down in energy by a factor of 105. With this system we show that the excitation transport between quantum coherent sites disordered in energy can be enabled through the interaction with environmental noise. We also show that the efficiency of the process is maximized for structured noise resembling intramolecular phononic environments found in photosynthetic complexes.

Realization of a quantum random generator certified with the Kochen-Specker theorem

  1. Anatoly Kulikov,
  2. Markus Jerger,
  3. Anton Potočnik,
  4. Andreas Wallraff,
  5. and Arkady Fedorov
Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte-Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property and no output string generated
by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value-indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

A Superconducting Quantum Simulator for Topological Order and the Toric Code

  1. Mahdi Sameti,
  2. Anton Potocnik,
  3. Dan E. Browne,
  4. Andreas Wallraff,
  5. and Michael J. Hartmann
Topological order is now being established as a central criterion for characterizing and classifying ground states of condensed matter systems and complements categorizations based
on symmetries. Fractional quantum Hall systems and quantum spin liquids are receiving substantial interest because of their intriguing quantum correlations, their exotic excitations and prospects for protecting stored quantum information against errors. Here we show that the Hamiltonian of the central model of this class of systems, the Toric Code, can be directly implemented as an analog quantum simulator in lattices of superconducting circuits. The four-body interactions, which lie at its heart, are in our concept realized via Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) that are driven by a suitably oscillating flux bias. All physical qubits and coupling SQUIDs can be individually controlled with high precision. Topologically ordered states can be prepared via an adiabatic ramp of the stabilizer interactions. Strings of qubit operators, including the stabilizers and correlations along non-contractible loops, can be read out via a capacitive coupling to read-out resonators. Moreover, the available single qubit operations allow to create and propagate elementary excitations of the Toric Code and to verify their fractional statistics. The architecture we propose allows to implement a large variety of many-body interactions and thus provides a versatile analog quantum simulator for topological order and lattice gauge theories.

Contextuality without nonlocality in a superconducting quantum system

  1. Markus Jerger,
  2. Yarema Reshitnyk,
  3. Markus Oppliger,
  4. Anton Potočnik,
  5. Mintu Mondal,
  6. Andreas Wallraff,
  7. Kenneth Goodenough,
  8. Stephanie Wehner,
  9. Kristinn Juliusson,
  10. Nathan K. Langford,
  11. and Arkady Fedorov
Quantum physics cannot be reconciled with the classical philosophy of noncontextual realism. Realism demands that system properties exist independently of whether they are measured,
while noncontextuality demands that the results of measurements do not depend on what other measurements are performed in conjunction with them. The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual realism cannot reproduce the measurement statistics of a single three-level quantum system (qutrit). Noncontextual realistic models may thus be tested using a single qutrit without relying on the notion of quantum entanglement in contrast to Bell inequality tests. It is challenging to refute such models experimentally, since imperfections may introduce loopholes that enable a realist interpretation. Using a superconducting qutrit with deterministic, binary-outcome readouts, we violate a noncontextuality inequality while addressing the detection, individual-existence and compatibility loopholes. Noncontextuality tests have been carried out in a range of different physical systems and dimensionalities, including neutrons, trapped ions and single photons, but no experiment addressing all three loopholes has been performed in the qutrit scenario where entanglement cannot play a role. Demonstrating state-dependent contextuality of a solid-state system is also an important conceptual ingredient for universal quantum computation in surface-code architectures, currently the most promising route to scalable quantum computing.