Fault tolerant quantum computing relies on the ability to detect and correct errors, which in quantum error correction codes is typically achieved by projectively measuring multi-qubit
parity operators and by conditioning operations on the observed error syndromes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the use of an ancillary qubit to repeatedly measure the ZZ and XX parity operators of two data qubits and to thereby project their joint state into the respective parity subspaces. By applying feedback operations conditioned on the outcomes of individual parity measurements, we demonstrate the real-time stabilization of a Bell state with a fidelity of F≈74% in up to 12 cycles of the feedback loop. We also perform the protocol using Pauli frame updating and, in contrast to the case of real-time stabilization, observe a steady decrease in fidelity from cycle to cycle. The ability to stabilize parity over multiple feedback rounds with no reduction in fidelity provides strong evidence for the feasibility of executing stabilizer codes on timescales much longer than the intrinsic coherence times of the constituent qubits.
Heralding techniques are useful in quantum communication to circumvent losses without resorting to error correction schemes or quantum repeaters. Such techniques are realized, for example,
by monitoring for photon loss at the receiving end of the quantum link while not disturbing the transmitted quantum state. We describe and experimentally benchmark a scheme that incorporates error detection in a quantum channel connecting two transmon qubits using traveling microwave photons. This is achieved by encoding the quantum information as a time-bin superposition of a single photon, which simultaneously realizes high communication rates and high fidelities. The presented scheme is straightforward to implement in circuit QED and is fully microwave-controlled, making it an interesting candidate for future modular quantum computing architectures.
A robust cryogenic infrastructure in form of a wired, thermally optimized dilution refrigerator is essential for present and future solid-state based quantum processors. Here, we engineer
an extensible cryogenic setup, which minimizes passive and active heat loads, while guaranteeing rapid qubit control and readout. We review design criteria for qubit drive lines, flux lines, and output lines used in typical experiments with superconducting circuits and describe each type of line in detail. The passive heat load of stainless steel and NbTi coaxial cables and the active load due to signal dissipation are measured, validating our robust and extensible concept for thermal anchoring of attenuators, cables, and other microwave components. Our results are important for managing the heat budget of future large-scale quantum computers based on superconducting circuits.
The duration and fidelity of qubit readout is a critical factor for applications in quantum information processing as it limits the fidelity of algorithms which reuse qubits after measurement
or apply feedback based on the measurement result. Here we present fast multiplexed readout of five qubits in a single 1.2 GHz wide readout channel. Using a readout pulse length of 80 ns and populating readout resonators for less than 250 ns we find an average correct assignment probability for the five measured qubits to be 97%. The differences between the individual readout errors and those found when measuring the qubits simultaneously are within 1%. We employ individual Purcell filters for each readout resonator to suppress off-resonant driving, which we characterize by the dephasing imposed on unintentionally measured qubits. We expect the here presented readout scheme to become particularly useful for the selective readout of individual qubits in multi-qubit quantum processors.
Active qubit reset is a key operation in many quantum algorithms, and particularly in error correction codes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a reset scheme of a three level transmon
artificial atom coupled to a large bandwidth resonator. The reset protocol uses a microwave-induced interaction between the |f,0⟩ and |g,1⟩ states of the coupled transmon-resonator system, with |g⟩ and |f⟩ denoting the ground and second excited states of the transmon, and |0⟩ and |1⟩ the photon Fock states of the resonator. We characterize the reset process and demonstrate reinitialization of the transmon-resonator system to its ground state with 0.2% residual excitation in less than 500ns. Our protocol is of practical interest as it has no requirements on the architecture, beyond those for fast and efficient single-shot readout of the transmon, and does not require feedback.
Sharing information coherently between nodes of a quantum network is at the foundation of distributed quantum information processing. In this scheme, the computation is divided into
subroutines and performed on several smaller quantum registers connected by classical and quantum channels. A direct quantum channel, which connects nodes deterministically, rather than probabilistically, is advantageous for fault-tolerant quantum computation because it reduces the threshold requirements and can achieve larger entanglement rates. Here, we implement deterministic state transfer and entanglement protocols between two superconducting qubits fabricated on separate chips. Superconducting circuits constitute a universal quantum node capable of sending, receiving, storing, and processing quantum information. Our implementation is based on an all-microwave cavity-assisted Raman process which entangles or transfers the qubit state of a transmon-type artificial atom to a time-symmetric itinerant single photon. We transfer qubit states at a rate of 50kHz using the emitted photons which are absorbed at the receiving node with a probability of 98.1±0.1% achieving a transfer process fidelity of 80.02±0.07%. We also prepare on demand remote entanglement with a fidelity as high as 78.9±0.1%. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a master equation description of the system. This deterministic quantum protocol has the potential to be used as a backbone of surface code quantum error correction across different nodes of a cryogenic network to realize large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computation in the circuit quantum electrodynamic architecture.
Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum non-demolition detector
for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in single shot, we reach an internal photon detection fidelity of 71%, limited by the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum non-demolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.
The process of photosynthesis, the main source of energy in the animate world, converts sunlight into chemical energy. The surprisingly high efficiency of this process is believed to
be enabled by an intricate interplay between the quantum nature of molecular structures in photosynthetic complexes and their interaction with the environment. Investigating these effects in biological samples is challenging due to their complex and disordered structure. Here we experimentally demonstrate a new approach for studying photosynthetic models based on superconducting quantum circuits. In particular, we demonstrate the unprecedented versatility and control of our method in an engineered three-site model of a pigment protein complex with realistic parameters scaled down in energy by a factor of 105. With this system we show that the excitation transport between quantum coherent sites disordered in energy can be enabled through the interaction with environmental noise. We also show that the efficiency of the process is maximized for structured noise resembling intramolecular phononic environments found in photosynthetic complexes.
Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte-Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property and no output string generated
by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value-indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.
Quantum computing architectures rely on classical electronics for control and readout. Employing classical electronics in a feedback loop with the quantum system allows to stabilize
states, correct errors and to realize specific feedforward-based quantum computing and communication schemes such as deterministic quantum teleportation. These feedback and feedforward operations are required to be fast compared to the coherence time of the quantum system to minimize the probability of errors. We present a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based digital signal processing system capable of real-time quadrature demodulation, determination of the qubit state and generation of state-dependent feedback trigger signals. The feedback trigger is generated with a latency of 110ns with respect to the timing of the analog input signal. We characterize the performance of the system for an active qubit initialization protocol based on dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit and discuss potential applications in feedback and feedforward algorithms.