Nonreciprocal devices based on voltage-tunable junctions

  1. Catherine Leroux,
  2. Adrian Parra-Rodriguez,
  3. Ross Shillito,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. William D. Oliver,
  6. Charles M. Marcus,
  7. Morten Kjaergaard,
  8. András Gyenis,
  9. and Alexandre Blais
We propose to couple the flux degree of freedom of one mode with the charge degree of freedom of a second mode in a hybrid superconducting-semiconducting architecture. Nonreciprocity
can arise in this architecture in the presence of external static magnetic fields alone. We leverage this property to engineer a passive on-chip gyrator, the fundamental two-port nonreciprocal device which can be used to build other nonreciprocal devices such as circulators. We analytically and numerically investigate how the nonlinearity of the interaction, circuit disorder and parasitic couplings affect the scattering response of the gyrator.

Extensible circuit-QED architecture via amplitude- and frequency-variable microwaves

  1. Agustin Di Paolo,
  2. Catherine Leroux,
  3. Thomas M. Hazard,
  4. Kyle Serniak,
  5. Simon Gustavsson,
  6. Alexandre Blais,
  7. and William D. Oliver
We introduce a circuit-QED architecture combining fixed-frequency qubits and microwave-driven couplers. In the appropriate frame, the drive parameters appear as tunable knobs enabling
selective two-qubit coupling and coherent-error suppression. We moreover introduce a set of controlled-phase gates based on drive-amplitude and drive-frequency modulation. We develop a theoretical framework based on Floquet theory to model microwave-activated interactions with time-dependent drive parameters, which we also use for pulse shaping. We perform numerical simulations of the gate fidelity for realistic circuit parameters, and discuss the impact of drive-induced decoherence. We estimate average gate fidelities beyond 99.9% for all-microwave controlled-phase operations with gate times in the range 50−120ns. These two-qubit gates can operate over a large drive-frequency bandwidth and in a broad range of circuit parameters, thereby improving extensibility. We address the frequency allocation problem for this architecture using perturbation theory, demonstrating that qubit, coupler and drive frequencies can be chosen such that undesired static and driven interactions remain bounded in a multi-qubit device. Our numerical methods are useful for describing the time-evolution of driven systems in the adiabatic limit, and are applicable to a wide variety of circuit-QED setups.

Realizing Repeated Quantum Error Correction in a Distance-Three Surface Code

  1. Sebastian Krinner,
  2. Nathan Lacroix,
  3. Ants Remm,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Elie Genois,
  6. Catherine Leroux,
  7. Christoph Hellings,
  8. Stefania Lazar,
  9. Francois Swiadek,
  10. Johannes Herrmann,
  11. Graham J. Norris,
  12. Christian Kraglund Andersen,
  13. Markus Müller,
  14. Alexandre Blais,
  15. Christopher Eichler,
  16. and Andreas Wallraff
Quantum computers hold the promise of solving computational problems which are intractable using conventional methods. For fault-tolerant operation quantum computers must correct errors
occurring due to unavoidable decoherence and limited control accuracy. Here, we demonstrate quantum error correction using the surface code, which is known for its exceptionally high tolerance to errors. Using 17 physical qubits in a superconducting circuit we encode quantum information in a distance-three logical qubit building up on recent distance-two error detection experiments. In an error correction cycle taking only 1.1μs, we demonstrate the preservation of four cardinal states of the logical qubit. Repeatedly executing the cycle, we measure and decode both bit- and phase-flip error syndromes using a minimum-weight perfect-matching algorithm in an error-model-free approach and apply corrections in postprocessing. We find a low error probability of 3% per cycle when rejecting experimental runs in which leakage is detected. The measured characteristics of our device agree well with a numerical model. Our demonstration of repeated, fast and high-performance quantum error correction cycles, together with recent advances in ion traps, support our understanding that fault-tolerant quantum computation will be practically realizable.

Superconducting coupler with exponentially large on-off ratio

  1. Catherine Leroux,
  2. Agustin Di Paolo,
  3. and Alexandre Blais
Tunable two-qubit couplers offer an avenue to mitigate errors in multiqubit superconducting quantum processors. However, most couplers operate in a narrow frequency band and target
specific couplings, such as the spurious ZZ interaction. We introduce a superconducting coupler that alleviates these limitations by suppressing all two-qubit interactions with an exponentially large on-off ratio and without the need for fine-tuning. Our approach is based on a bus mode supplemented by an ancillary nonlinear resonator mode. Driving the ancillary mode leads to a coupler-state-dependent field displacement in the resonator which, in turn, results in an exponential suppression of real and virtual two-qubit interactions with respect to the drive power. A superconducting circuit implementation supporting the proposed mechanism is presented.

Accurate methods for the analysis of strong-drive effects in parametric gates

  1. Alexandru Petrescu,
  2. Camille Le Calonnec,
  3. Catherine Leroux,
  4. Agustin Di Paolo,
  5. Pranav Mundada,
  6. Sara Sussman,
  7. Andrei Vrajitoarea,
  8. Andrew A. Houck,
  9. and Alexandre Blais
The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity entangling gates is an important requirement for a viable quantum processor. In practice, achieving fast gates often comes with the penalty
of strong-drive effects that are not captured by the rotating-wave approximation. These effects can be analyzed in simulations of the gate protocol, but those are computationally costly and often hide the physics at play. Here, we show how to efficiently extract gate parameters by directly solving a Floquet eigenproblem using exact numerics and a perturbative analytical approach. As an example application of this toolkit, we study the space of parametric gates generated between two fixed-frequency transmon qubits connected by a parametrically driven coupler. Our analytical treatment, based on time-dependent Schrieffer-Wolff perturbation theory, yields closed-form expressions for gate frequencies and spurious interactions, and is valid for strong drives. From these calculations, we identify optimal regimes of operation for different types of gates including iSWAP, controlled-Z, and CNOT. These analytical results are supplemented by numerical Floquet computations from which we directly extract drive-dependent gate parameters. This approach has a considerable computational advantage over full simulations of time evolutions. More generally, our combined analytical and numerical strategy allows us to characterize two-qubit gates involving parametrically driven interactions, and can be applied to gate optimization and cross-talk mitigation such as the cancellation of unwanted ZZ interactions in multi-qubit architectures.