Microwave-Activated Controlled-Z Gate for Fixed-Frequency Fluxonium Qubits

  1. Konstantin N. Nesterov,
  2. Ivan V. Pechenezhskiy,
  3. Chen Wang,
  4. Vladimir E. Manucharyan,
  5. and Maxim G. Vavilov
The superconducting fluxonium circuit is an artificial atom with a strongly anharmonic spectrum: when biased at a half flux quantum, the lowest qubit transition is an order of magnitude
smaller in frequency than those to higher levels. Similar to conventional atomic systems, such a frequency separation between the computational and noncomputational subspaces allows independent optimizations of the qubit coherence and two-qubit interactions. Here we describe a controlled-Z gate for two fluxoniums connected either capacitively or inductively, with qubit transitions fixed near 500 MHz. The gate is activated by a microwave drive at a resonance involving the second excited state. We estimate intrinsic gate fidelities over 99.9% with gate times below 100 ns.

Controlled-Z gate for transmon qubits coupled by semiconductor junctions

  1. Zhenyi Qi,
  2. Hong-Yi Xie,
  3. Javad Shabani,
  4. Vladimir E. Manucharyan,
  5. Alex Levchenko,
  6. and Maxim G. Vavilov
We analyze the coupling of two qubits via an epitaxial semiconducting junction. In particular, we consider three configurations that include pairs of transmons or gatemons as well as
gatemon-like two qubits formed by an epitaxial four-terminal junction. These three configurations provide an electrical control of the interaction between the qubits by applying voltage to a metallic gate near the semiconductor junction and can be utilized to naturally realize a controlled-Z gate (CZ). We calculate the fidelity and timing for such CZ gate. We demonstrate that in the absence of decoherence, the CZ gate can be performed under 50 ns with gate error below 10−4.

Protecting a superconducting qubit from energy decay by selection rule engineering

  1. Yen-Hsiang Lin,
  2. Long B. Nguyen,
  3. Nicholas Grabon,
  4. Jonathan San Miguel,
  5. Natalya Pankratova,
  6. and Vladimir E. Manucharyan
Quantum control of atomic systems is largely enabled by the rich structure of selection rules in the spectra of most real atoms. Their macroscopic superconducting counterparts have
been lacking this feature, being limited to a single transition type with a large dipole. Here we report a superconducting artificial atom with tunable transition dipoles, designed such that its forbidden (qubit) transition can dispersively interact with microwave photons due to the virtual excitations of allowed transitions. Owing to this effect, we have demonstrated an in-situ tuning of qubit’s energy decay lifetime by over two orders of magnitude, exceeding a value of 2 ms, while keeping the transition frequency fixed around 3,5 GHz

Is the quantum Rabi model adequate in circuit QED for any atom-resonator coupling?

  1. Vladimir E. Manucharyan,
  2. Alexandre Baksic,
  3. and Cristiano Ciuti
In circuit quantum electrodynamics, an artificial „circuit atom“ can couple to a quantized microwave radiation much stronger than its real atomic counterpart. The celebrated
quantum Rabi model describes the simplest interaction of a two-level system with a single-mode boson field. When the coupling is arbitrary large, the bare multilevel structure of a realistic circuit atom cannot be ignored even if the circuit is strongly anharmonic. We explored this situation theoretically for flux (fluxonium) and charge (Cooper pair box) type multi-level circuit atoms at maximal frustration and identified which spectral features of the quantum Rabi model survive and which are renormalized for arbitrary large coupling. We provide a quantitative comparison with the ideal quantum Rabi model by inspecting not only the circuit energy level spectrum, but also the entanglement spectrum. Despite significant renormalization of the low-energy energy spectrum in the fluxonium case, the key quantum Rabi feature — nearly-degenerate vacuum consisting of an atomic state entangled with a multi-photon field — appears in both circuits when the coupling is sufficiently large. Like in the quantum Rabi model, for very large couplings the entanglement spectrum is dominated by only two, nearly equal eigenvalues, in spite of the fact that a large number of bare atomic states are actually involved in the ground state. We interpret the emergence of the vacuum degeneracy in both circuits as an environmental suppression of flux/charge tunneling due to their dressing by virtual low-/high-impedance photons in the resonator. For flux tunneling, the dressing is nothing else than the shunting of a Josephson atom with a large capacitance of the resonator. Suppression of charge tunneling appears to have the same origin as the dynamical Coulomb blockade of transport in tunnel junctions connected to resistive leads.