Dissipation-based Quantum Sensing of Magnons with a Superconducting Qubit

  1. Samuel Piotr Wolski,
  2. Dany Lachance-Quirion,
  3. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  4. Shingo Kono,
  5. Atsushi Noguchi,
  6. Koji Usami,
  7. and Yasunobu Nakamura
Hybrid quantum devices expand the tools and techniques available for quantum sensing in various fields. Here, we experimentally demonstrate quantum sensing of the steady-state magnon
population in a magnetostatic mode of a ferrimagnetic crystal. Dispersively coupling the magnetostatic mode to a superconducting qubit allows the detection of magnons using Ramsey interferometry with a sensitivity on the order of 10−3 magnons/Hz−−−√. The protocol is based on dissipation as dephasing via fluctuations in the magnetostatic mode reduces the qubit coherence proportionally to the number of magnons.

Fast parametric two-gubit gates with suppressed residual interaction using a parity-violated superconducting qubit

  1. Atsushi Noguchi,
  2. Alto Osada,
  3. Shumpei Masuda,
  4. Shingo Kono,
  5. Kentaro Heya,
  6. Samuel Piotr Wolski,
  7. Hiroki Takahashi,
  8. Takanori Sugiyama,
  9. Dany Lachance-Quirion,
  10. and Yasunobu Nakamura
We demonstrate fast two-qubit gates using a parity-violated superconducting qubit consisting of a capacitively-shunted asymmetric Josephson-junction loop under a finite magnetic flux
bias. The second-order nonlinearity manifesting in the qubit enables the interaction with a neighboring single-junction transmon qubit via first-order inter-qubit sideband transitions with Rabi frequencies up to 30~MHz. Simultaneously, the unwanted static longitudinal~(ZZ) interaction is eliminated with ac Stark shifts induced by a continuous microwave drive near-resonant to the sideband transitions. The average fidelities of the two-qubit gates are evaluated with randomized benchmarking as 0.967, 0.951, 0.956 for CZ, iSWAP and SWAP gates, respectively.

Breaking the trade-off between fast control and long lifetime of a superconducting qubit

  1. Shingo Kono,
  2. Kazuki Koshino,
  3. Dany Lachance-Quirion,
  4. Arjan F. Van Loo,
  5. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  6. Atsushi Noguchi,
  7. and Yasunobu Nakamura
The rapid development in designs and fabrication techniques of superconducting qubits has helped making coherence times of qubits longer. In the near future, however, the radiative
decay of a qubit into its control line will be a fundamental limitation, imposing a trade-off between fast control and long lifetime of the qubit. In this work, we successfully break this trade-off by strongly coupling another superconducting qubit along the control line. This second qubit, which we call a Josephson quantum filter~(JQF), prevents the qubit from emitting microwave photons and thus suppresses its relaxation, while faithfully transmitting large-amplitude control microwave pulses due to the saturation of the quantum filter, enabling fast qubit control. We observe an improvement of the qubit relaxation time without a reduction of the Rabi frequency. This device could potentially help in the realization of a large-scale superconducting quantum information processor in terms of the heating of the qubit environments and the crosstalk between qubits.

On-demand generation and characterization of a microwave time-bin qubit

  1. Jesper Ilves,
  2. Shingo Kono,
  3. Yoshiki Sunada,
  4. Shota Yamazaki,
  5. Minkyu Kim,
  6. Kazuki Koshino,
  7. and Yasunobu Nakamura
Superconducting circuits offer a scalable platform for the construction of large-scale quantum networks where information can be encoded in multiple temporal modes of propagating microwaves.
Characterization of such microwave signals with a method extendable to an arbitrary number of temporal modes with a single detector and demonstration of their phase-robust nature are of great interest. Here we show the on-demand generation and Wigner tomography of a microwave time-bin qubit with superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. We perform the tomography with a single heterodyne detector by dynamically changing the measurement quadrature with a phase-sensitive amplifier independently for the two temporal modes. By generating and measuring the qubits with hardware lacking a shared phase reference, we demonstrate conservation of phase information in each time-bin qubit generated.

Entanglement-based single-shot detection of a single magnon with a superconducting qubit

  1. Dany Lachance-Quirion,
  2. Samuel Piotr Wolski,
  3. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  4. Shingo Kono,
  5. Koji Usami,
  6. and Yasunobu Nakamura
The recent development of hybrid systems based on superconducting circuits has opened up the possibility of engineering sensors of quanta of different degrees of freedom. Quantum magnonics,
which aims to control and read out quanta of collective spin excitations in magnetically-ordered systems, furthermore provides unique opportunities for advances in both the study of magnetism and the development of quantum technologies. Using a superconducting qubit as a quantum sensor, we report the detection of a single magnon in a millimeter-sized ferromagnetic crystal with a quantum efficiency of up to~0.71. The detection is based on the entanglement between a magnetostatic mode and the qubit, followed by a single-shot measurement of the qubit state. This proof-of-principle experiment establishes the single-photon detector counterpart for magnonics.

Hybrid quantum systems based on magnonics

  1. Dany Lachance-Quirion,
  2. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  3. Arnaud Gloppe,
  4. Koji Usami,
  5. and Yasunobu Nakamura
Engineered quantum systems enabling novel capabilities for communication, computation, and sensing have blossomed in the last decade. Architectures benefiting from combining distinct
and complementary physical quantum systems have emerged as promising platforms for developing quantum technologies. A new class of hybrid quantum systems based on collective spin excitations in ferromagnetic materials has led to the diverse set of experimental platforms which are outlined in this review article. More specifically, the coherent interaction between microwave cavity modes and collective spin-wave modes is presented as the backbone of the development of more complex hybrid quantum systems. Indeed, quanta of excitation of the spin-wave modes, called magnons, can also interact coherently with optical photons, phonons, and superconducting qubits in the fields of cavity optomagnonics, cavity magnomechanics, and quantum magnonics, respectively. Notably, quantum magnonics provides a promising platform for performing quantum optics experiments in magnetically-ordered solid-state systems. Applications of hybrid quantum systems based on magnonics for quantum information processing and quantum sensing are also outlined briefly.

Variational Quantum Gate Optimization

  1. Kentaro Heya,
  2. Yasunari Suzuki,
  3. Yasunobu Nakamura,
  4. and Keisuke Fujii
We propose a gate optimization method, which we call variational quantum gate optimization (VQGO). VQGO is a method to construct a target multi-qubit gate by optimizing a parametrized
quantum circuit which consists of tunable single-qubit gates with high fidelities and fixed multi-qubit gates with limited controlabilities. As an example, we apply the proposed scheme to the models relevant to superconducting qubit systems. We show in numerical simulations that the high-fidelity CNOT gate can be constructed with VQGO using cross-resonance gates with finite crosstalk. We also demonstrate that fast and a high-fidelity four-qubit syndrome extraction can be implemented with simultaneous cross-resonance drives even in the presence of non-commutative crosstalk. VQGO gives a pathway for designing efficient gate operations for quantum computers.

Single-photon quantum regime of artificial radiation pressure on a surface acoustic wave resonator

  1. Atsushi Noguchi,
  2. Rekishu Yamazaki,
  3. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  4. and Yasunobu Nakamura
Electromagnetic fields carry momentum, which upon reflection on matter, gives rise to the radiation pressure of photons. The radiation pressure has recently been utilized in cavity
optomechanics for controlling mechanical motions of macroscopic objects at the quantum limit. However, because of the weakness of the interaction, attempts so far had to use a strong coherent drive to reach the quantum limit. Therefore, the single photon quantum regime, where even the presence of a totally off-resonant single photon alters the quantum state of the mechanical mode significantly, is one of the next milestones in cavity optomechanics. Here we demonstrate an artificial realization of the radiation pressure of microwave photons acting on phonons in a surface acoustic wave resonator. The order-of-magnitude enhancement of the interaction strength originates in the well-tailored strong second-order nonlinearity of a superconducting Josephson-junction circuit. The synthetic radiation pressure interaction adds a key element to the quantum optomechanical toolbox and can be applied to quantum information interfaces between electromagnetic and mechanical degrees of freedom.

Circuit QED-based measurement of vortex lattice order in a Josephson junction array

  1. R. Cosmic,
  2. Hiroki Ikegami,
  3. Zhirong Lin,
  4. Kunihiro Inomata,
  5. Jacob M. Taylor,
  6. and Yasunobu Nakamura
Superconductivity provides a canonical example of a quantum phase of matter. When superconducting islands are connected by Josephson junctions in a lattice, the low temperature state
of the system can map to the celebrated XY model and its associated universality classes. This has been used to experimentally implement realizations of Mott insulator and Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transitions to vortex dynamics analogous to those in type-II superconductors. When an external magnetic field is added, the effective spins of the XY model become frustrated, leading to the formation of topological defects (vortices). Here we observe the many-body dynamics of such an array, including frustration, via its coupling to a superconducting microwave cavity. We take the design of the transmon qubit, but replace the single junction between two antenna pads with the complete array. This allows us to probe the system at 10 mK with minimal self-heating by using weak coherent states at the single (microwave) photon level to probe the resonance frequency of the cavity. We observe signatures of ordered vortex lattice at rational flux fillings of the array.

Qubit-assisted transduction for a detection of surface acoustic waves near the quantum limit

  1. Atsushi Noguchi,
  2. Rekishu Yamazaki,
  3. Yutaka Tabuchi,
  4. and Yasunobu Nakamura
We demonstrate ultra-sensitive measurement of fluctuations in a surface-acoustic-wave~(SAW) resonator using a hybrid quantum system consisting of the SAW resonator, a microwave (MW)
resonator and a superconducting qubit. The nonlinearity of the driven qubit induces parametric coupling, which up-converts the excitation in the SAW resonator to that in the MW resonator. Thermal fluctuations of the SAW resonator near the quantum limit are observed in the noise spectroscopy in the MW domain.