Experimental quantum teleportation of propagating microwaves

  1. K. G. Fedorov,
  2. M. Renger,
  3. S. Pogorzalek,
  4. R. Di Candia,
  5. Q. Chen,
  6. Y. Nojiri,
  7. K. Inomata,
  8. Y. Nakamura,
  9. M. Partanen,
  10. A. Marx,
  11. R. Gross,
  12. and F. Deppe
The modern field of quantum communication thrives on promise to deliver efficient and unconditionally secure ways to exchange information by exploiting quantum laws of physics. Here,
quantum teleportation stands out as an exemplary protocol allowing for the disembodied and safe transfer of unknown quantum states using quantum entanglement and classical communication as resources. The experimental feasibility of quantum teleportation with propagating waves, relevant to communication scenarios, has been demonstrated in various physical settings. However, an analogous implementation of quantum teleportation in the microwave domain was missing so far. At the same time, recent breakthroughs in quantum computation with superconducting circuits have triggered a demand for quantum communication between spatially separated superconducting processors operated at microwave frequencies. Here, we demonstrate a realization of deterministic quantum teleportation of coherent microwave states by exploiting two-mode squeezing and analog feedforward over macroscopic distances d=42cm. We achieve teleportation fidelities F=0.689±0.004 exceeding the no-cloning Fnc=2/3 threshold for coherent states with an average photon number of up to nd=1.1. Our results provide a key ingredient for the teleportation-based quantum gate for modular quantum computing with superconducting circuits and establish a solid foundation for future microwave quantum local area networks.

Finite-time quantum correlations of propagating squeezed microwaves

  1. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  2. S. Pogorzalek,
  3. U. Las Heras,
  4. M. Sanz,
  5. P. Yard,
  6. P. Eder,
  7. M. Fischer,
  8. J. Goetz,
  9. E. Xie,
  10. K. Inomata,
  11. Y. Nakamura,
  12. R. Di Candia,
  13. E. Solano,
  14. A. Marx,
  15. F. Deppe,
  16. and R. Gross
Two-mode squeezing is a fascinating example of quantum entanglement manifested in cross-correlations of incompatible observables between two subsystems. At the same time, these subsystems
themselves may contain no quantum signatures in their self-correlations. These properties make two-mode squeezed (TMS) states an ideal resource for applications in quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum illumination. Propagating microwave TMS states can be produced by a beam splitter distributing single mode squeezing emitted from Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA) into two output paths. In this work, we experimentally quantify the dephasing process of quantum correlations in propagating TMS microwave states and accurately describe it with a theory model. In this way, we gain an insight into quantum entanglement limits and predict high fidelities for benchmark quantum communication protocols such as remote state preparation and quantum teleportation.

Quantum Illumination Unveils Cloaking

  1. U. Las Heras,
  2. R. Di Candia,
  3. K. G. Fedorov,
  4. F. Deppe,
  5. M. Sanz,
  6. and E. Solano
In quantum illumination entangled light is employed to enhance the detection accuracy of an object when compared with the best classical protocol. On the other hand, cloaking is a stealth
technology based on covering a target with a material deflecting the light around the object to avoid its detection. Here, we propose a quantum illumination protocol especially adapted to quantum microwave technology which, by seizing weaknesses in current cloaking techniques, allows for a 3 dB improvement in the detection of a cloaked target. Finally, we study the minimal efficiency required by the photocounter for which the quantum illumination protocol still shows a gain with respect to the classical protocol.

Displacement of propagating squeezed microwave states

  1. Kirill G. Fedorov,
  2. L. Zhong,
  3. S. Pogorzalek,
  4. P. Eder,
  5. M. Fischer,
  6. J. Goetz,
  7. E. Xie,
  8. F. Wulschner,
  9. K. Inomata,
  10. T. Yamamoto,
  11. Y. Nakamura,
  12. R. Di Candia,
  13. U. Las Heras,
  14. M. Sanz,
  15. E. Solano,
  16. E. P. Menzel,
  17. F. Deppe,
  18. A. Marx,
  19. and R. Gross
Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an
important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states stays constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves

  1. R. Di Candia,
  2. K. G. Fedorov,
  3. L. Zhong,
  4. S. Felicetti,
  5. E. P. Menzel,
  6. M. Sanz,
  7. F. Deppe,
  8. A. Marx,
  9. R. Gross,
  10. and E. Solano
Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication
channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution.

Dual-Path Methods for Propagating Quantum Microwaves

  1. R. Di Candia,
  2. E. P. Menzel,
  3. L. Zhong,
  4. F. Deppe,
  5. A. Marx,
  6. R. Gross,
  7. and E. Solano
We study quantum state tomography, entanglement detection, and channel noise reconstruction of propagating quantum microwaves via dual-path methods. The presented schemes make use of
the following key elements: propagation channels, beam splitters, linear amplifiers, and field quadrature detectors. Remarkably, our methods are tolerant to the ubiquitous noise added to the signals by phase-insensitive microwave amplifiers. Furthermore, we analyze our techniques with numerical examples and experimental data. Our methods provide key toolbox components that may pave the way towards quantum microwave teleportation and communication protocols.

Squeezing with a flux-driven Josephson parametric amplifier

  1. L. Zhong,
  2. E. P. Menzel,
  3. R. Di Candia,
  4. P. Eder,
  5. M. Ihmig,
  6. A. Baust,
  7. M. Haeberlein,
  8. E. Hoffmann,
  9. K. Inomata,
  10. T. Yamamoto,
  11. Y. Nakamura,
  12. E. Solano,
  13. F. Deppe,
  14. A. Marx,
  15. and R. Gross
Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA) are promising devices for applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) and for studies on propagating quantum microwaves because of their
good noise performance. In this work, we present a systematic characterization of a flux-driven JPA at millikelvin temperatures. In particular, we study in detail its squeezing properties by two different detection techniques. With the homodyne setup, we observe squeezing of vacuum fluctuations by superposing signal and idler bands. For a quantitative analysis we apply dual-path cross-correlation techniques to reconstruct the Wigner functions of various squeezed vacuum and thermal states. At 10 dB signal gain, we find 4.9+-0.2 dB squeezing below vacuum. In addition, we discuss the physics behind squeezed coherent microwave fields. Finally, we analyze the JPA noise temperature in the degenerate mode and find a value smaller than the standard quantum limit for phase-insensitive amplifiers.

Quantum Simulations of Relativistic Quantum Physics in Circuit QED

  1. J. S. Pedernales,
  2. R. Di Candia,
  3. D. Ballester,
  4. and E. Solano
We present a scheme for simulating relativistic quantum physics in circuit quantum electrodynamics. By using three classical microwave drives, we show that a superconducting qubit strongly-coupled
to a resonator field mode can be used to simulate the dynamics of the Dirac equation and Klein paradox in all regimes. Using the same setup we also propose the implementation of the Foldy-Wouthuysen canonical transformation, after which the time derivative of the position operator becomes a constant of the motion.

Path Entanglement of Continuous-Variable Quantum Microwaves

  1. E. P. Menzel,
  2. R. Di Candia,
  3. F. Deppe,
  4. P. Eder,
  5. L. Zhong,
  6. M. Ihmig,
  7. M. Haeberlein,
  8. A. Baust,
  9. E. Hoffmann,
  10. D. Ballester,
  11. K. Inomata,
  12. T. Yamamoto,
  13. Y. Nakamura,
  14. E. Solano,
  15. A. Marx,
  16. and R. Gross
Path entanglement constitutes an essential resource in quantum information and communication protocols. Here, we demonstrate frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable
quantum microwaves propagating along two spatially separated paths. We combine a squeezed and a vacuum state using a microwave beam splitter. Via correlation measurements, we detect and quantify the path entanglement contained in the beam splitter output state. Our experiments open the avenue to quantum teleportation, quantum communication, or quantum radar with continuous variables at microwave frequencies.