Recent advancements in circuit quantum electrodynamics have enabled precise manipulation and detection of the single energy quantum in quantum systems. A quantum circuit refrigerator(QCR) is capable of electrically cooling the excited population of quantum systems, such as superconducting resonators and qubits, through photon-assisted tunneling of quasi-particles within a superconductor-insulator-normal metal junction. In this study, we demonstrated instantaneous QCR in the quantum regime. We performed the time-resolved measurement of the QCR-induced cooling of photon number inside the superconducting resonator by harnessing a qubit as a photon detector. From the enhanced photon loss rate of the resonator estimated from the amount of the AC Stark shift, the QCR was shown to have a cooling power of approximately 300 aW. Furthermore, even below the single energy quantum, the QCR can reduce the number of photons inside the resonator with 100 ns pulse from thermal equilibrium. Numerical calculations based on the Lindblad master equation successfully reproduced these experimental results.

A periodically-driven superconducting nonlinear resonator can implement a Kerr-cat qubit, which provides a promising route to a quantum computer with a long lifetime. However, the systemis vulnerable to pure dephasing, which causes unwanted excitations outside the qubit subspace. Therefore, we require a refrigeration technology which confines the system in the qubit subspace. We theoretically study on-chip refrigeration for Kerr-cat qubits based on photon-assisted electron tunneling at tunneling junctions, called quantum circuit refrigerator (QCR). Rates of QCR-induced deexcitations of the system can be changed by more than four orders of magnitude by tuning a bias voltage across the tunneling junctions. Unwanted QCR-induced bit flips are greatly suppressed due to quantum interference in the tunneling process, and thus the long lifetime is preserved. The QCR can serve as a tunable dissipation source which stabilizes Kerr-cat qubits.

Quantum tunneling is the phenomenon that makes superconducting circuits „quantum“. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in using quantum tunneling in phase spaceof a Kerr parametric oscillator as a resource for quantum information processing. Here, we report a direct observation of quantum interference induced by such tunneling in a planar superconducting circuit. We experimentally elucidate all essential properties of this quantum interference, such as mapping from Fock states to cat states, a temporal oscillation induced by the pump detuning, as well as its characteristic Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Finally, we perform gate operations as manipulations of the observed quantum interference. Our findings lay the groundwork for further studies on quantum properties of Kerr parametric oscillators and their use in quantum information technologies.

The initialization of superconducting qubits is one of the essential techniques for the realization of quantum computation. In previous research, initialization above 99% fidelityhas been achieved at 280 ns. Here, we demonstrate the rapid initialization of a superconducting qubit with a quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR). Photon-assisted tunneling of quasiparticles in the QCR can temporally increase the relaxation time of photons inside the resonator and helps release energy from the qubit to the environment. Experiments using this protocol have shown that 99\% of initialization time is reduced to 180 ns. This initialization time depends strongly on the relaxation rate of the resonator, and faster initialization is possible by reducing the resistance of the QCR, which limits the ON/OFF ratio, and by strengthening the coupling between the QCR and the resonator.

We address the scaling-up problem for superconducting quantum circuits by using lumped-element resonators based on a new fabrication method of aluminum — aluminum oxide —aluminum (Al/AlOx/Al) parallel-plate capacitors. The size of the resonators is only 0.04 mm2, which is more than one order smaller than the typical size of coplanar resonators (1 mm2). The fabrication method we developed easily fits into the standard superconducting qubits fabrication process. We have obtained capacitance per area 14 fF/μm2 and the internal quality factor 1×103−8×103 at the single-photon level. Our results show that such devices based on Al/AlOx/Al capacitors could be further applied to the qubit readout scheme, including resonators, filters, amplifiers, as well as microwave metamaterials and novel types of qubits, such as 0−π qubit.

We report an experimentally observed anomalous doubly split spectrum and its split-width fluctuation in an ultrastrongly coupled superconducting qubit and resonator. From an analysisof Rabimodel and circuit model Hamiltonians, we found that the doubly split spectrum and split-width fluctuation are caused by discrete charge hops due to quasiparticle tunnelings and a continuous background charge fluctuation in islands of a flux qubit. During 70 hours in the spectrum measurement, split width fluctuates but the middle frequency of the split is constant. This result indicates that quasiparticles in our device seem mainly tunnel one particular junction. The background offsetcharge obtained from split width has the 1/f noise characteristic.

In this tutorial, we introduce basic conceptual elements to understand and build a gate-based superconducting quantum computing system.