Recent advancements in circuit quantum electrodynamics have enabled precise manipulation and detection of the single energy quantum in quantum systems. A quantum circuit refrigerator(QCR) is capable of electrically cooling the excited population of quantum systems, such as superconducting resonators and qubits, through photon-assisted tunneling of quasi-particles within a superconductor-insulator-normal metal junction. In this study, we demonstrated instantaneous QCR in the quantum regime. We performed the time-resolved measurement of the QCR-induced cooling of photon number inside the superconducting resonator by harnessing a qubit as a photon detector. From the enhanced photon loss rate of the resonator estimated from the amount of the AC Stark shift, the QCR was shown to have a cooling power of approximately 300 aW. Furthermore, even below the single energy quantum, the QCR can reduce the number of photons inside the resonator with 100 ns pulse from thermal equilibrium. Numerical calculations based on the Lindblad master equation successfully reproduced these experimental results.

In quantum information processing, two primary research directions have emerged: one based on discrete variables (DV) and the other on the structure of quantum states in a continuous-variable(CV) space. It is increasingly recognized that integrating these two approaches could unlock new potentials, overcoming the inherent limitations of each. Here, we show that such a DV-CV hybrid approach, applied to superconducting Kerr parametric oscillators (KPOs), enables us to entangle a pair of Schrödinger’s cat states by two straightforward methods. The first method involves the entanglement-preserving and deterministic conversion between Bell states in the Fock-state basis (DV encoding) and those in the cat-state basis (CV encoding). This method would allow us to construct quantum networks in the cat-state basis using conventional schemes originally developed for the Fock-state basis. In the second method, the iSWAP‾‾‾‾‾‾‾√ gate operation is implemented between two cat states following the procedure used for Fock-state encoding. This DV-like gate operation on CV encoding not only completes the demonstration of a universal quantum gate set in a KPO system but also enables faster and simpler gate operations compared to previous SWAP gate implementations on bosonic modes. Our work offers a simple yet powerful application of DV-CV hybridization while also highlighting the scalability of this planar KPO system.

Quantum tunneling is the phenomenon that makes superconducting circuits „quantum“. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in using quantum tunneling in phase spaceof a Kerr parametric oscillator as a resource for quantum information processing. Here, we report a direct observation of quantum interference induced by such tunneling in a planar superconducting circuit. We experimentally elucidate all essential properties of this quantum interference, such as mapping from Fock states to cat states, a temporal oscillation induced by the pump detuning, as well as its characteristic Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Finally, we perform gate operations as manipulations of the observed quantum interference. Our findings lay the groundwork for further studies on quantum properties of Kerr parametric oscillators and their use in quantum information technologies.

The initialization of superconducting qubits is one of the essential techniques for the realization of quantum computation. In previous research, initialization above 99% fidelityhas been achieved at 280 ns. Here, we demonstrate the rapid initialization of a superconducting qubit with a quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR). Photon-assisted tunneling of quasiparticles in the QCR can temporally increase the relaxation time of photons inside the resonator and helps release energy from the qubit to the environment. Experiments using this protocol have shown that 99\% of initialization time is reduced to 180 ns. This initialization time depends strongly on the relaxation rate of the resonator, and faster initialization is possible by reducing the resistance of the QCR, which limits the ON/OFF ratio, and by strengthening the coupling between the QCR and the resonator.

We report an experimentally observed anomalous doubly split spectrum and its split-width fluctuation in an ultrastrongly coupled superconducting qubit and resonator. From an analysisof Rabimodel and circuit model Hamiltonians, we found that the doubly split spectrum and split-width fluctuation are caused by discrete charge hops due to quasiparticle tunnelings and a continuous background charge fluctuation in islands of a flux qubit. During 70 hours in the spectrum measurement, split width fluctuates but the middle frequency of the split is constant. This result indicates that quasiparticles in our device seem mainly tunnel one particular junction. The background offsetcharge obtained from split width has the 1/f noise characteristic.

Cluster states, a type of highly entangled state, are essential resources for quantum information processing. Here we demonstrated the generation of a time-domain linear cluster state(t-LCS) using a superconducting quantum circuit consisting of only two transmon qubits. By recycling the physical qubits, the t-LCS equivalent up to four physical qubits was validated by quantum state tomography with fidelity of 59%. We further confirmed the true generation of t-LCS by examining the expectation value of an entanglement witness. Our demonstrated protocol of t-LCS generation allows efficient use of physical qubits which could lead to resource-efficient execution of quantum circuits on large scale.