Single-Shot Readout of a Superconducting Qubit Using a Thermal Detector

  1. András M. Gunyhó,
  2. Suman Kundu,
  3. Jian Ma,
  4. Wei Liu,
  5. Sakari Niemelä,
  6. Giacomo Catto,
  7. Vasilii Vadimov,
  8. Visa Vesterinen,
  9. Priyank Singh,
  10. Qiming Chen,
  11. and Mikko Möttönen
Measuring the state of qubits is one of the fundamental operations of a quantum computer. Currently, state-of-the-art high-fidelity single-shot readout of superconducting qubits relies
on parametric amplifiers at the millikelvin stage. However, parametric amplifiers are challenging to scale beyond hundreds of qubits owing to practical size and power limitations. Nanobolometers have properties that are advantageous for scalability and have recently shown sensitivity and speed promising for qubit readout, but such thermal detectors have not been demonstrated for this purpose. In this work, we utilize an ultrasensitive bolometer in place of a parametric amplifier to experimentally demonstrate single-shot qubit readout. With a modest readout duration of 13.9 μs, we achieve a single-shot fidelity of 0.618 which is mainly limited by the energy relaxation time of the qubit, T1=28 μs. Without the T1 errors, we find the fidelity to be 0.927. In the future, high-fidelity single-shot readout may be achieved by straightforward improvements to the chip design and experimental setup, and perhaps most interestingly by the change of the bolometer absorber material to reduce the readout time to the hundred-nanosecond level.

Exceptional-point-assisted entanglement, squeezing, and reset in a chain of three superconducting resonators

  1. Wallace S. Teixeira,
  2. Vasilii Vadimov,
  3. Timm Mörstedt,
  4. Suman Kundu,
  5. and Mikko Möttönen
The interplay between coherent and dissipative dynamics required in various control protocols of quantum technology has motivated studies of open-system degeneracies, referred to as
exceptional points (EPs). Here, we introduce a scheme for fast quantum-state synthesis using exceptional-point engineering in a lossy chain of three superconducting resonators. We theoretically find that the rich physics of EPs can be used to identify regions in the parameter space that favor a fast and quasi-stable transfer of squeezing and entanglement, or a fast reset of the system. For weakly interacting resonators with the coupling strength g, the obtained quasi-stabilization time scales are identified as 1/(22‾√g), and reset infidelities below 10−5 are obtained with a waiting time of roughly 6/g in the case of weakly squeezed resonators. Our results shed light on the role of EPs in multimode Gaussian systems and pave the way for optimized distribution of squeezing and entanglement between different nodes of a photonic network using dissipation as a resource.

Unimon qubit

  1. Eric Hyyppä,
  2. Suman Kundu,
  3. Chun Fai Chan,
  4. András Gunyhó,
  5. Juho Hotari,
  6. Olavi Kiuru,
  7. Alessandro Landra,
  8. Wei Liu,
  9. Fabian Marxer,
  10. Akseli Mäkinen,
  11. Jean-Luc Orgiazzi,
  12. Mario Palma,
  13. Mykhailo Savytskyi,
  14. Francesca Tosto,
  15. Jani Tuorila,
  16. Vasilii Vadimov,
  17. Tianyi Li,
  18. Caspar Ockeloen-Korppi,
  19. Johannes Heinsoo,
  20. Kuan Yen Tan,
  21. Juha Hassel,
  22. and Mikko Möttönen
Superconducting qubits are one of the most promising candidates to implement quantum computers. The superiority of superconducting quantum computers over any classical device in simulating
random but well-determined quantum circuits has already been shown in two independent experiments and important steps have been taken in quantum error correction. However, the currently wide-spread qubit designs do not yet provide high enough performance to enable practical applications or efficient scaling of logical qubits owing to one or several following issues: sensitivity to charge or flux noise leading to decoherence, too weak non-linearity preventing fast operations, undesirably dense excitation spectrum, or complicated design vulnerable to parasitic capacitance. Here, we introduce and demonstrate a superconducting-qubit type, the unimon, which combines the desired properties of high non-linearity, full insensitivity to dc charge noise, insensitivity to flux noise, and a simple structure consisting only of a single Josephson junction in a resonator. We measure the qubit frequency, ω01/(2π), and anharmonicity α over the full dc-flux range and observe, in agreement with our quantum models, that the qubit anharmonicity is greatly enhanced at the optimal operation point, yielding, for example, 99.9% and 99.8% fidelity for 13-ns single-qubit gates on two qubits with (ω01,α)=(4.49 GHz,434 MHz)×2π and (3.55 GHz,744 MHz)×2π, respectively. The energy relaxation time T1≲10 μs is stable for hours and seems to be limited by dielectric losses. Thus, future improvements of the design, materials, and gate time may promote the unimon to break the 99.99% fidelity target for efficient quantum error correction and possible quantum advantage with noisy systems.

Engineering Cross Resonance Interaction in Multi-modal Quantum Circuits

  1. Sumeru Hazra,
  2. Kishor V. Salunkhe,
  3. Anirban Bhattacharjee,
  4. Gaurav Bothara,
  5. Suman Kundu,
  6. Tanay Roy,
  7. Meghan P. Patankar,
  8. and R. Vijay
Existing scalable superconducting quantum processors have only nearest-neighbor coupling. This leads to reduced circuit depth, requiring large series of gates to perform an arbitrary
unitary operation in such systems. Recently, multi-modal devices have been demonstrated as a promising candidate for small quantum processor units. Always on longitudinal coupling in such circuits leads to implementation of native high fidelity multi-qubit gates. We propose an architecture using such devices as building blocks for a highly connected larger quantum circuit. To demonstrate a quantum operation between such blocks, a standard transmon is coupled to the multi-modal circuit using a 3D bus cavity giving rise to small exchange interaction between the transmon and one of the modes. We study the cross resonance interaction in such systems and characterize the entangling operation as well as the unitary imperfections and cross-talk as a function of device parameters. Finally, we tune up the cross resonance drive to implement multi-qubit gates in this architecture.

Multiplexed readout of four qubits in 3D cQED architecture using broadband JPA

  1. Suman Kundu,
  2. Nicolas Gheeraert,
  3. Sumeru Hazra,
  4. Tanay Roy,
  5. Kishor V. Salunkhe,
  6. Meghan P. Patankar,
  7. and R. Vijay
We propose and demonstrate a frequency-multiplexed readout scheme in 3D cQED architecture. We use four transmon qubits coupled to individual rectangular cavities which are aperture-coupled
to a common rectangular waveguide feedline. A coaxial to waveguide transformer at the other end of the feedline allows one to launch and collect the multiplexed signal. The reflected readout signal is amplified by an impedance engineered broadband parametric amplifier with 380 MHz of bandwidth. This provides us high fidelity single-shot readout of multiple qubits using compact microwave circuitry, an efficient way for scaling up to more qubits in 3D cQED.

Multi-mode superconducting circuits for realizing strongly coupled multi-qubit processor units

  1. Tanay Roy,
  2. Madhavi Chand,
  3. Sumeru Hazra,
  4. Suman Kundu,
  5. Kedar Damle,
  6. and R. Vijay
Inter-qubit coupling and qubit connectivity in a processor are crucial for achieving high fidelity multi-qubit gates and efficient implementation of quantum algorithms. Typical superconducting
processors employ relatively weak transverse inter-qubit coupling which are activated via frequency tuning or microwave drives. Here, we propose a class of multi-mode superconducting circuits which realize multiple transmon qubits with all-to-all longitudinal coupling. These „artificial molecules“ directly implement a multi-dimensional Hilbert space that can be easily manipulated due to the always-on longitudinal coupling. We describe the basic technique to analyze such circuits, compute the relevant properties and discuss how to optimize them to create efficient small-scale quantum processors with universal programmability.

Implementation of pairwise longitudinal coupling in a three-qubit superconducting circuit

  1. Tanay Roy,
  2. Suman Kundu,
  3. Madhavi Chand,
  4. Sumeru Hazra,
  5. N. Nehra,
  6. R. Cosmic,
  7. A. Ranadive,
  8. Meghan P. Patankar,
  9. Kedar Damle,
  10. and R. Vijay
We present the „trimon“, a multi-mode superconducting circuit implementing three qubits with all-to-all longitudinal coupling. This always-on interaction enables simple
implementation of generalized controlled-NOT gates which form a universal set. Further, two of the three qubits are protected against Purcell decay while retaining measurability. We demonstrate high-fidelity state swapping operations between two qubits and characterize the coupling of all three qubits to a neighbouring transmon qubit. Our results offer a new paradigm for multi-qubit architecture with applications in quantum error correction, quantum simulations and quantum annealing.

A two-fold quantum delayed-choice experiment in a superconducting circuit

  1. K. Liu,
  2. Y. Xu,
  3. W. Wang,
  4. Shi-Biao Zheng,
  5. Tanay Roy,
  6. Suman Kundu,
  7. Madhavi Chand,
  8. A. Ranadive,
  9. R. Vijay,
  10. Y. P. Song,
  11. L. M. Duan,
  12. and L. Sun
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a two-fold quantum delayed-choice experiment where wave or particle nature of a superconducting interfering device can be post-selected twice
after the interferometer. The wave-particle complementarity is controlled by a quantum which-path detector (WPD) in a superposition of its on and off states implemented through a superconducting cavity. The WPD projected to its on state records which-path information, which manifests the particle nature and destroys the interference associated with wave nature of the system. In our experiment, we can recover the interference signal through a quantum eraser even if the WPD has selected out the particle nature in the first round of delayed-choice detection, showing that a quantum WPD adds further unprecedented controllability to test of wave-particle complementarity through the peculiar quantum delayed-choice measurements.

Broadband parametric amplification with impedance engineering: Beyond the gain-bandwidth product

  1. Tanay Roy,
  2. Suman Kundu,
  3. Madhavi Chand,
  4. Vadiraj A. M.,
  5. A. Ranadive,
  6. N. Nehra,
  7. Meghan P. Patankar,
  8. J. Aumentado,
  9. A. A. Clerk,
  10. and R. Vijay
We present an impedance engineered Josephson parametric amplifier capable of providing bandwidth beyond the traditional gain-bandwidth product. We achieve this by introducing a positive
linear slope in the imaginary component of the input impedance seen by the Josephson oscillator using a λ/2 transformer. Our theoretical model predicts an extremely flat gain profile with a bandwidth enhancement proportional to the square root of amplitude gain. We experimentally demonstrate a nearly flat 20 dB gain over a 640 MHz band, along with a mean 1-dB compression point of -110 dBm and near quantum-limited noise. The results are in good agreement with our theoretical model.