Superconducting metamaterials for waveguide quantum electrodynamics

  1. Mohammad Mirhosseini,
  2. Eunjong Kim,
  3. Vinicius S. Ferreira,
  4. Mahmoud Kalaee,
  5. Alp Sipahigil,
  6. Andrew J. Keller,
  7. and Oskar Painter
The embedding of tunable quantum emitters in a photonic bandgap structure enables the control of dissipative and dispersive interactions between emitters and their photonic bath. Operation
in the transmission band, outside the gap, allows for studying waveguide quantum electrodynamics in the slow-light regime. Alternatively, tuning the emitter into the bandgap results in finite range emitter-emitter interactions via bound photonic states. Here we couple a transmon qubit to a superconducting metamaterial with a deep sub-wavelength lattice constant (λ/60). The metamaterial is formed by periodically loading a transmission line with compact, low loss, low disorder lumped element microwave resonators. We probe the coherent and dissipative dynamics of the system by measuring the Lamb shift and the change in the lifetime of the transmon qubit. Tuning the qubit frequency in the vicinity of a band-edge with a group index of ng=450, we observe an anomalous Lamb shift of 10 MHz accompanied by a 24-fold enhancement in the qubit lifetime. In addition, we demonstrate selective enhancement and inhibition of spontaneous emission of different transmon transitions, which provide simultaneous access to long-lived metastable qubit states and states strongly coupled to propagating waveguide modes.

Superconducting qubits on silicon substrates for quantum device integration

  1. Andrew J. Keller,
  2. Paul B. Dieterle,
  3. Michael Fang,
  4. Brett Berger,
  5. Johannes M. Fink,
  6. and Oskar Painter
We present the fabrication and characterization of transmon qubits formed from aluminum Josephson junctions on two different silicon-based substrates: (i) high-resistivity silicon (Si)
and (ii) silicon-on-insulator (SOI). Key to the qubit fabrication process is the use of an anhydrous hydrofluoric vapor process which removes silicon surface oxides without attacking aluminum, and in the case of SOI substrates, selectively removes the lossy buried oxide underneath the qubit region. For qubits with a transition frequency of approximately 5GHz we find qubit lifetimes and coherence times comparable to those attainable on sapphire substrates (T1,Si=27μs, T2,Si=6.6μs; T1,SOI=3.5μs, T2,SOI=2.2μs). This qubit fabrication process in principle permits co-fabrication of silicon photonic and mechanical elements, providing a route towards chip-scale integration of electro-opto-mechanical transducers for quantum networking of superconducting microwave quantum circuits.

Efficient single sideband microwave to optical conversion using an electro-optical whispering gallery mode resonator

  1. Alfredo Rueda,
  2. Florian Sedlmeir,
  3. Michele C. Collodo,
  4. Ulrich Vogl,
  5. Birgit Stiller,
  6. Gerhard Schunk,
  7. Dmitry V. Strekalov,
  8. Christoph Marquardt,
  9. Johannes M. Fink,
  10. Oskar Painter,
  11. Gerd Leuchs,
  12. and Harald G. L. Schwefel
Linking classical microwave electrical circuits to the optical telecommunication band is at the core of modern communication. Future quantum information networks will require coherent
microwave-to-optical conversion to link electronic quantum processors and memories via low-loss optical telecommunication networks. Efficient conversion can be achieved with electro-optical modulators operating at the single microwave photon level. In the standard electro-optic modulation scheme this is impossible because both, up- and downconverted, sidebands are necessarily present. Here we demonstrate true single sideband up- or downconversion in a triply resonant whispering gallery mode resonator by explicitly addressing modes with asymmetric free spectral range. Compared to previous experiments, we show a three orders of magnitude improvement of the electro-optical conversion efficiency reaching 0.1% photon number conversion for a 10GHz microwave tone at 0.42mW of optical pump power. The presented scheme is fully compatible with existing superconducting 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics technology and can be used for non-classical state conversion and communication. Our conversion bandwidth is larger than 1MHz and not fundamentally limited.