Microwave-to-optical conversion with a gallium phosphide photonic crystal cavity

  1. Simon Hönl,
  2. Youri Popoff,
  3. Daniele Caimi,
  4. Alberto Beccari,
  5. Tobias J. Kippenberg,
  6. and Paul Seidler
Electrically actuated optomechanical resonators provide a route to quantum-coherent, bidirectional conversion of microwave and optical photons. Such devices could enable optical interconnection
of quantum computers based on qubits operating at microwave frequencies. Here we present a novel platform for microwave-to-optical conversion comprising a photonic crystal cavity made of single-crystal, piezoelectric gallium phosphide integrated on pre-fabricated niobium circuits on an intrinsic silicon substrate. The devices exploit spatially extended, sideband-resolved mechanical breathing modes at ∼ 3.2 GHz, with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates of up to g0/2π≈ 300 kHz. The mechanical modes are driven by integrated microwave electrodes via the inverse piezoelectric effect. We estimate that the system could achieve an electromechanical coupling rate to a superconducting transmon qubit of ∼ 200 kHz. Our work represents a decisive step towards integration of piezoelectro-optomechanical interfaces with superconducting quantum processors.

Cryogenic electro-optic interconnect for superconducting devices

  1. Amir Youssefi,
  2. Itay Shomroni,
  3. Yash J. Joshi,
  4. Nathan Bernier,
  5. Anton Lukashchuk,
  6. Philipp Uhrich,
  7. Liu Qiu,
  8. and Tobias J. Kippenberg
Encoding information onto optical fields is the backbone of modern telecommunication networks. Optical fibers offer low loss transport and vast bandwidth compared to electrical cables,
and are currently also replacing copper cables for short-range communications. Optical fibers also exhibit significantly lower thermal conductivity, making optical interconnects attractive for interfacing with superconducting circuits and devices. Yet little is known about modulation at cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment, showing that currently employed Ti-doped LiNbO modulators maintain the Pockels coefficient at 3K—a base temperature for classical microwave amplifier circuitry. We realize electro-optical read-out of a superconducting electromechanical circuit to perform both coherent spectroscopy, measuring optomechanically-induced transparency, and incoherent thermometry, encoding the thermomechanical sidebands in an optical signal. Although the achieved noise figures are high, approaches that match the lower-bandwidth microwave signals, use integrated devices or materials with higher EO coefficient, should achieve added noise similar to current HEMT amplifiers, providing a route to parallel readout for emerging quantum or classical computing platforms.

Quantum-limited directional amplifiers with optomechanics

  1. Daniel Malz,
  2. Lázló D. Tóth,
  3. Nathan R. Bernier,
  4. Alexey K. Feofanov,
  5. Tobias J. Kippenberg,
  6. and Andreas Nunnenkamp
Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of
phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators and we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.

On-chip microwave-to-optical quantum coherent converter based on a superconducting resonator coupled to an electro-optic microresonator

  1. Clément Javerzac-Galy,
  2. Kirill Plekhanov,
  3. Nathan Bernier,
  4. Laszlo D. Toth,
  5. Alexey K. Feofanov,
  6. and Tobias J. Kippenberg
We propose a device architecture capable of direct quantum electro-optical conversion of microwave to optical photons. The hybrid system consists of a planar superconducting microwave
circuit coupled to an integrated whispering-gallery-mode microresonator made from an electro-optical material. We show that electro-optical (vacuum) coupling rates g0 as large as∼2π(10−100) kHz are achievable with currently available technology, due to the small mode volume of the planar microwave resonator. Operating at millikelvin temperatures, such a converter would enable high-efficiency conversion of microwave to optical photons. We analyze the added noise, and show that maximum conversion efficiency is achieved for a multi-photon cooperativity of unity which can be reached with optical power as low as (1)mW.

Control of microwave signals using circuit nano-electromechanics

  1. Xiaoqing Zhou,
  2. Fredrik Hocke,
  3. Albert Schliesser,
  4. Achim Marx,
  5. Hans Huebl,
  6. Rudolf Gross,
  7. and Tobias J. Kippenberg
and circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) [2]. Coupled to artificial atoms in the form of superconducting"]qubits [3, 4], they now provide a technologically promising and scalable platform for quantum information processing tasks [2, 5-8]. Coupling these circuits, in situ, to other quantum systems, such as molecules [9, 10], spin ensembles [11, 12], quantum dots [13] or mechanical oscillators [14, 15] has been explored to realize hybrid systems with extended functionality. Here, we couple a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator to a nano-coshmechanical oscillator, and demonstrate all-microwave field controlled slowing, advancing and switching of microwave signals. This is enabled by utilizing electromechanically induced transparency [16-18], an effect analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics [19]. The exquisite temporal control gained over this phenomenon provides a route towards realizing advanced protocols for storage of both classical and quantum microwave signals [20-22], extending the toolbox of control techniques of the microwave field.