Multimode physics of the unimon circuit

  1. Sasu Tuohino,
  2. Vasilii Vadimov,
  3. Wallace S. Teixeira,
  4. Tommi Malmelin,
  5. Matti Silveri,
  6. and Mikko Möttönen
We consider a superconducting half-wavelength resonator that is grounded at its both ends and contains a single Josephson junction. Previously this circuit was considered as a unimon
qubit in the single-mode approximation where dc-phase-biasing the junction to π leads to increased anharmonicity and 99.9% experimentally observed single-qubit gate fidelity. Inspired by the promising first experimental results, we develop here a theoretical and numerical model for the detailed understanding of the multimode physics of the unimon circuit. To this end, first, we consider the high-frequency modes of the unimon circuit and find that even though these modes are at their ground state, they imply a significant renormalization to the Josephson energy. We introduce an efficient method how the relevant modes can be fully taken into account and show that unexcited high-lying modes lead to corrections in the qubit energy and anharmonicity. Interestingly, provided that the junction is offset from the middle of the circuit, we find strong cross-Kerr coupling strengths between a few low-lying modes. This observation paves the way for the utilization of the multimode structure, for example, as several qubits embedded into a single unimon circuit.

Quantum-circuit refrigeration of a superconducting microwave resonator well below a single quantum

  1. Arto Viitanen,
  2. Timm Mörstedt,
  3. Wallace S. Teixeira,
  4. Maaria Tiiri,
  5. Jukka Räbinä,
  6. Matti Silveri,
  7. and Mikko Möttönen
We experimentally demonstrate a recently proposed single-junction quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR) as an in-situ-tunable low-temperature environment for a superconducting 4.7-GHz
resonator. With the help of a transmon qubit, we measure the populations of the different resonator Fock states, thus providing reliable access to the temperature of the engineered electromagnetic environment and its effect on the resonator. We demonstrate coherent and thermal resonator states and that the on-demand dissipation provided by the QCR can drive these to a small fraction of a photon on average, even if starting above 1 K. We observe that the QCR can be operated either with a dc bias voltage or a gigahertz rf drive, or a combination of these. The bandwidth of the rf drive is not limited by the circuit itself and consequently, we show that 2.9-GHz continuous and 10-ns-pulsed drives lead to identical desired refrigeration of the resonator. These observations answer to the shortcomings of previous works where the Fock states were not resolvable and the QCR exhibited slow charging dynamics. Thus this work introduces a versatile tool to study open quantum systems, quantum thermodynamics, and to quickly reset superconducting qubits.

Dissipation and Dephasing of Interacting Photons in Transmon Arrays

  1. Oksana Busel,
  2. Sami Laine,
  3. Olli Mansikkamäki,
  4. and Matti Silveri
Transmon arrays are one of the most promising platforms for quantum information science. Despite being often considered simply as qubits, transmons are inherently quantum mechanical
multilevel systems. Being experimentally controllable with high fidelity, the higher excited states beyond the qubit subspace provide an important resource for hardware-efficient many-body quantum simulations, quantum error correction, and quantum information protocols. Alas, dissipation and dephasing phenomena generated by couplings to various uncontrollable environments yield a practical limiting factor to their utilization. To quantify this in detail, we present here the primary consequences of single-transmon dissipation and dephasing to the many-body dynamics of transmon arrays. We use analytical methods from perturbation theory and quantum trajectory approach together with numerical simulations, and deliberately consider the full Hilbert space including the higher excited states. The three main non-unitary processes are many-body decoherence, many-body dissipation, and heating/cooling transitions between different anharmonicity manifolds. Of these, the many-body decoherence — being proportional to the squared distance between the many-body Fock states — gives the strictest limit for observing effective unitary dynamics. Considering experimentally relevant parameters, including also the inevitable site-to-site disorder, our results show that the state-of-the-art transmon arrays should be ready for the task of demonstrating coherent many-body dynamics using the higher excited states. However, the wider utilization of transmons for ternary-and-beyond quantum computing calls for improving their coherence properties.

Collective bosonic effects in an array of transmon devices

  1. Tuure Orell,
  2. Maximilian Zanner,
  3. Mathieu L. Juan,
  4. Aleksei Sharafiev,
  5. Romain Albert,
  6. Stefan Oleschko,
  7. Gerhard Kirchmair,
  8. and Matti Silveri
Multiple atoms coherently interacting with an electromagnetic mode give rise to collective effects such as correlated decay and coherent exchange interaction, depending on the separation
of the atoms. By diagonalizing the effective non-Hermitian many-body Hamiltonian we reveal the complex-valued eigenvalue spectrum encoding the decay and interaction characteristics. We show that there are significant differences in the emerging effects for an array of interacting anharmonic oscillators compared to those of two-level systems and harmonic oscillators. The bosonic decay rate of the most superradiant state increases linearly as a function of the filling factor and exceeds that of two-level systems in magnitude. Furthermore, with bosonic systems, dark states are formed at each filling factor. These are in strong contrast with two-level systems, where the maximal superradiance is observed at half filling and with larger filling factors superradiance diminishes and no dark states are formed. As an experimentally relevant setup of bosonic waveguide QED, we focus on arrays of transmon devices embedded inside a rectangular waveguide. Specifically, we study the setup of two transmon pairs realized experimentally in M. Zanner et al., arXiv.2106.05623 (2021), and show that it is necessary to consider transmons as bosonic multilevel emitters to accurately recover correct collective effects for the higher excitation manifolds.

Charge dynamics in quantum-circuit refrigeration: thermalization and microwave gain

  1. Hao Hsu,
  2. Matti Silveri,
  3. Vasilii Sevriuk,
  4. Mikko Möttönen,
  5. and Gianluigi Catelani
Previous studies of photon-assisted tunneling through normal-metal-insulator-superconductor junctions have exhibited potential for providing a convenient tool to control the dissipation
of quantum-electric circuits in-situ. However, the current literature on such a quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR) does not present a detailed description for the charge dynamics of the tunneling processes or the phase coherence of the open quantum system. Here we derive a master equation describing both quantum-electric and charge degrees of freedom, and discover that typical experimental parameters of low temperature and yet lower charging energy yield a separation of time scales for the charge and quantum dynamics. Consequently, the minor effect of the different charge states can be taken into account by averaging over the charge distribution. We also consider applying an ac voltage to the tunnel junction, which enables control of the decay rate of a superconducting qubit over four orders of magnitude by changing the drive amplitude; we find an order-of-magnitude drop in the qubit excitation in 40 ns and a residual reset infidelity below 10−4. Furthermore, for the normal island we consider the case of charging energy and single-particle level spacing large compared to the superconducting gap, i.e., a quantum dot. Although the decay rates arising from such a dot QCR appear low for use in qubit reset, the device can provide effective negative damping (gain) to the coupled microwave resonator. The Fano factor of such a millikelvin microwave source may be smaller than unity, with the latter value being reached close to the maximum attainable power.

Coherent control of a symmetry-engineered multi-qubit dark state in waveguide quantum electrodynamics

  1. Maximilian Zanner,
  2. Tuure Orell,
  3. Christian M. F. Schneider,
  4. Romain Albert,
  5. Stefan Oleschko,
  6. Mathieu L. Juan,
  7. Matti Silveri,
  8. and Gerhard Kirchmair
Quantum information is typically encoded in the state of a qubit that is decoupled from the environment. In contrast, waveguide quantum electrodynamics studies qubits coupled to a mode
continuum, exposing them to a loss channel and causing quantum information to be lost before coherent operations can be performed. Here we restore coherence by realizing a dark state that exploits symmetry properties and interactions between four qubits. Dark states decouple from the waveguide and are thus a valuable resource for quantum information but also come with a challenge: they cannot be controlled by the waveguide drive. We overcome this problem by designing a drive that utilizes the symmetry properties of the collective state manifold allowing us to selectively drive both bright and dark states. The decay time of the dark state exceeds that of the waveguide-limited single qubit by more than two orders of magnitude. Spectroscopy on the second excitation manifold provides further insight into the level structure of the hybridized system. Our experiment paves the way for implementations of quantum many-body physics in waveguides and the realization of quantum information protocols using decoherence-free subspaces.

Probing many-body localization phase transition with superconducting circuits

  1. Tuure Orell,
  2. Alexios A. Michailidis,
  3. Maksym Serbyn,
  4. and Matti Silveri
Chains of superconducting circuit devices provide a natural platform for studies of synthetic bosonic quantum matter. Motivated by the recent experimental progress in realizing disordered
and interacting chains of superconducting transmon devices, we study the bosonic many-body localization phase transition using the methods of exact diagonalization as well as matrix product state dynamics. We estimate the location of transition separating the ergodic and the many-body localized phases as a function of the disorder strength and the many-body on-site interaction strength. The main difference between the bosonic model realized by superconducting circuits and similar fermionic model is that the effect of the on-site interaction is stronger due to the possibility of multiple excitations occupying the same site. The phase transition is found to be robust upon including longer-range hopping and interaction terms present in the experiments. Furthermore, we calculate experimentally relevant local observables and show that their temporal fluctuations can be used to distinguish between the dynamics of Anderson insulator, many-body localization, and delocalized phases. While we consider unitary dynamics, neglecting the effects of dissipation, decoherence and measurement back action, the timescales on which the dynamics is unitary are sufficient for observation of characteristic dynamics in the many-body localized phase. Moreover, the experimentally available disorder strength and interactions allow for tuning the many-body localization phase transition, thus making the arrays of superconducting circuit devices a promising platform for exploring localization physics and phase transition.

Fast control of dissipation in a superconducting resonator

  1. Vasilii Sevriuk,
  2. Kuan Yen Tan,
  3. Eric Hyyppä,
  4. Matti Silveri,
  5. Matti Partanen,
  6. Máté Jenei,
  7. Shumpei Masuda,
  8. Jan Goetz,
  9. Visa Vesterinen,
  10. Leif Grönberg,
  11. and Mikko Möttönen
We report on fast tunability of an electromagnetic environment coupled to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator. Namely, we utilize a recently-developed quantum-circuit refrigerator
(QCR) to experimentally demonstrate a dynamic tunability in the total damping rate of the resonator up to almost two orders of magnitude. Based on the theory it corresponds to a change in the internal damping rate by nearly four orders of magnitude. The control of the QCR is fully electrical, with the shortest implemented operation times in the range of 10 ns. This experiment constitutes a fast active reset of a superconducting quantum circuit. In the future, a similar scheme can potentially be used to initialize superconducting quantum bits.

Accelerating dark-matter axion searches with quantum measurement technology

  1. Huaixiu Zheng,
  2. Matti Silveri,
  3. R. T. Brierley,
  4. S. M. Girvin,
  5. and K. W. Lehnert
The axion particle, a consequence of an elegant hypothesis that resolves the strong-CP problem of quantum chromodynamics, is a plausible origin for cosmological dark matter. In searches
for axionic dark matter that detect the conversion of axions to microwave photons, the quantum noise associated with microwave vacuum fluctuations will soon limit the rate at which parameter space is searched. Here we show that this noise can be partially overcome either by squeezing the quantum vacuum using recently developed Josephson parametric devices, or by using superconducting qubits to count microwave photons.

New class of quantum error-correcting codes for a bosonic mode

  1. Marios H. Michael,
  2. Matti Silveri,
  3. R. T. Brierley,
  4. Victor V. Albert,
  5. Juha Salmilehto,
  6. Liang Jiang,
  7. and S. M. Girvin
We construct a new class of quantum error-correcting codes for a bosonic mode which are advantageous for applications in quantum memories, communication, and scalable computation. These
`binomial quantum codes‘ are formed from a finite superposition of Fock states weighted with binomial coefficients. The binomial codes can exactly correct errors that are polynomial up to a specific degree in bosonic creation and annihilation operators, including amplitude damping and displacement noise as well as boson addition and dephasing errors. For realistic continuous-time dissipative evolution, the codes can perform approximate quantum error correction to any given order in the timestep between error detection measurements. We present an explicit approximate quantum error recovery operation based on projective measurements and unitary operations. The binomial codes are tailored for detecting boson loss and gain errors by means of measurements of the generalized number parity. We discuss optimization of the binomial codes and demonstrate that by relaxing the parity structure, codes with even lower unrecoverable error rates can be achieved. The binomial codes are related to existing two-mode bosonic codes but offer the advantage of requiring only a single bosonic mode to correct amplitude damping as well as the ability to correct other errors. Our codes are similar in spirit to `cat codes‘ based on superpositions of the coherent states, but offer several advantages such as smaller mean number, exact rather than approximate orthonormality of the code words, and an explicit unitary operation for repumping energy into the bosonic mode. The binomial quantum codes are realizable with current superconducting circuit technology and they should prove useful in other quantum technologies, including bosonic quantum memories, photonic quantum communication, and optical-to-microwave up- and down-conversion.