Quantum communication is a holy grail to achieve secure communication among a set of partners, since it is provably unbreakable by physical laws. Quantum sensing employs quantum entanglementas an extra resource to determine parameters by either using less resources or attaining a precision unachievable in classical protocols. A paradigmatic example is the quantum radar, which allows one to detect an object without being detected oneself, by making use of the additional asset provided by quantum entanglement to reduce the intensity of the signal. In the optical regime, impressive technological advances have been reached in the last years, such as the first quantum communication between ground and satellites, as well as the first proof-of-principle experiments in quantum sensing. The development of microwave quantum technologies turned out, nonetheless, to be more challenging. Here, we will discuss the challenges regarding the use of microwaves for quantum communication and sensing. Based on this analysis, we propose a roadmap to achieve real-life applications in these fields.

In this work we propose two protocols to make an effective gauge potential for microwave photons in circuit QED. The schemes consist of coupled transmons whose flux are harmonicallymodulated in time. We investigate the effect of various types of capacitive and inductive couplings, and the role of the fixed phase offset of each site on the complex coupling rate between coupled qubits. These configurations can be directly realised in a superconducting circuit and is easily extendable to a scalable lattice. Due to the intrinsic non-linearity of the transmon qubits such lattices would be an ideal platform for simulating Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians with non-trivial gauge fields.

Quantum simulations consist in the intentional reproduction of physical or unphysical models into another more controllable quantum system. Beyond establishing communication vesselsbetween unconnected fields, they promise to solve complex problems which may be considered as intractable for classical computers. From a historic perspective, two independent approaches have been pursued, namely, digital and analog quantum simulations. The former usually provide universality and flexibility, while the latter allows for scalability. Here, we review recent literature merging both paradigms in the context of superconducting circuits, yielding: digital-analog quantum simulations. In this manner, we aim at getting the best of both approaches in the most advanced quantum platform involving superconducting qubits and microwave transmission lines. The discussed merge of quantum simulation concepts, digital and analog, may open the possibility in the near future for outperforming classical computers in relevant problems, enabling the reach of quantum supremacy.

Circuit quantum electrodynamics studies the interaction of artificial atoms and electromagnetic modes constructed from superconducting circuitry. While the theory of an atom coupledto one mode of a resonator is well studied, considering multiple modes leads to divergences which are not well understood. Here, we introduce a full quantum model of a multi-mode resonator coupled to a Josephson junction atom. Using circuit quantization, we find a Hamiltonian in which parameters of the atom are naturally renormalized as additional modes are considered. In our model, we circumvent the divergence problem, and its formulation reveals a physical understanding of the mechanisms of convergence in ubiquitous models in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

We introduce a toolbox for the quantum simulation of superluminal motion with superconducting circuits. We show that it is possible to simulate the motion of a superconducting qubitat constant velocities that exceed the speed of light in the electromagnetic medium and the subsequent emission of Ginzburg radiation. We consider as well possible setups for simulating the superluminal motion of a mirror, finding a link with the superradiant phase transition of the Dicke model.

It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimizethem by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.

We show that simulated relativistic motion can generate entanglement between artificial atoms and protect them from spontaneous emission. We consider a pair of superconducting qubitscoupled to a resonator mode, where the modulation of the coupling strength can mimic the harmonic motion of the qubits at relativistic speeds, generating acceleration radiation. We find the optimal feasible conditions for generating a stationary entangled state between the qubits when they are initially prepared in their ground state. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of motion on the probability of spontaneous emission in the standard scenarios of single-atom and two-atom superradiance, where one or two excitations are initially present. Finally, we show that relativistic motion induces sub-radiance and can generate a Zeno-like effect, preserving the excitations from radiative decay.

We study a proof-of-principle example of the recently proposed hybrid quantum-classical simulation of strongly correlated fermion models in the thermodynamic limit. In a „two-site“dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) approach we reduce the Hubbard model to an effective impurity model subject to self-consistency conditions. The resulting minimal two-site representation of the non-linear hybrid setup involves four qubits implementing the impurity problem, plus an ancilla qubit on which all measurements are performed. We outline a possible implementation with superconducting circuits feasible with near-future technology.

A superconducting qubit coupled to an open transmission line represents an implementation of the spin-boson model with a broadband environment. We show that this environment can beengineered by introducing partial reflectors into the transmission line, allowing to shape the spectral function, J({\omega}), of the spin-boson model. The spectral function can be accessed by measuring the resonance fluorescence of the qubit, which provides information on both the engineered environment and the coupling between qubit and transmission line. The spectral function of a transmission line without partial reflectors is found to be Ohmic over a wide frequency range, whereas a peaked spectral density is found for the shaped environment. Our work lays the ground for future quantum simulations of other, more involved, impurity models with superconducting circuits.

We study the effects of relativistic motion on quantum teleportation and
propose a realizable experiment where our results can be tested. We compute
bounds on the optimal fidelity ofteleportation when one of the observers
undergoes non-uniform motion for a finite time. The upper bound to the optimal
fidelity is degraded due to the observer’s motion however, we discuss how this
degradation can be corrected. These effects are observable for experimental
parameters that are within reach of cutting-edge superconducting technology.