Sideband-resolved resonator electromechanics on the single-photon level based on a nonlinear Josephson inductance

  1. Philip Schmidt,
  2. Mohammad T. Amawi,
  3. Stefan Pogorzalek,
  4. Frank Deppe,
  5. Achim Marx,
  6. Rudolf Gross,
  7. and Hans Huebl
Light-matter interaction in optomechanical systems is the foundation for ultra-sensitive detection schemes [1,2] as well as the generation of phononic and photonic quantum states [3-10]. Electromechanical systems realize this optomechanical interaction in the microwave regime. In this context, capacitive coupling arrangements demonstrated interaction rates of up to 280 Hz [11]. Complementary, early proposals [12-15] and experiments [16,17] suggest that inductive coupling schemes are tunable and have the potential to reach the vacuum strong-coupling regime. Here, we follow the latter approach by integrating a partly suspended superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) into a microwave resonator. The mechanical displacement translates into a time varying flux in the SQUID loop, thereby providing an inductive electromechanical coupling. We demonstrate a sideband-resolved electromechanical system with a tunable vacuum coupling rate of up to 1.62 kHz, realizing sub-aN Hz-1/2 force sensitivities. Moreover, we study the frequency splitting of the microwave resonator for large mechanical amplitudes confirming the large coupling. The presented inductive coupling scheme shows the high potential of SQUID-based electromechanics for targeting the full wealth of the intrinsically nonlinear optomechanics Hamiltonian.

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