Perfect state transfer on hypercubes and its implementation using superconducting qubits

  1. Siddhant Singh,
  2. Bibhas Adhikari,
  3. Supriyo Dutta,
  4. and David Zueco
We propose a protocol for perfect state transfer between any pair of vertices in a hypercube. Given a pair of distinct vertices in the hypercube we determine a sub-hypercube that contains
the pair of vertices as antipodal vertices. Then a switching process is introduced for determining the sub-hypercube of a memory enhanced hypercube that facilitates perfect state transfer between the desired pair of vertices. Furthermore, we propose a physical architecture for the pretty good state transfer implementation of our switching protocol with fidelity arbitrary close to unity, using superconducting transmon qubits with tunable couplings. The switching is realised by the control over the effective coupling between the qubits resulting from the effect of ancilla qubit couplers for the graph edges. We also report an error bound on the fidelity of state transfer due to faulty implementation of our protocol.

Gauge freedom, quantum measurements, and time-dependent interactions in cavity and circuit QED

  1. Alessio Settineri,
  2. Omar Di Stefano,
  3. David Zueco,
  4. Stephen Hughes,
  5. Salvatore Savasta,
  6. and Franco Nori
The interaction between the electromagnetic field inside a cavity and natural or artificial atoms has played a crucial role in developing our understanding of light-matter interaction,
and is central to various quantum technologies. Recently, new regimes beyond the weak and strong light-matter coupling have been explored in several settings. These regimes, where the interaction strength is comparable (ultrastrong) or even higher (deep-strong) than the transition frequencies in the system, can give rise to new physical effects and applications. At the same time, they challenge our understanding of cavity QED. When the interaction strength is so high, fundamental issues like the proper definition of subsystems and of their quantum measurements, the structure of light-matter ground states, or the analysis of time-dependent interactions are subject to ambiguities leading to even qualitatively distinct predictions. The resolution of these ambiguities is also important for understanding and designing next-generation quantum devices that will exploit the ultrastrong coupling regime. Here we discuss and provide solutions to these issues.

Coupling spin ‚clock states‘ to superconducting circuits

  1. Ignacio Gimeno,
  2. David Zueco,
  3. Yan Duan,
  4. Carlos Sánchez-Azqueta,
  5. Thomas Astner,
  6. Alejandro Gaita-Ariño,
  7. Stephen Hill,
  8. Johannes Majer,
  9. Eugenio Coronado,
  10. and Fernando Luis
A central goal in quantum technologies is to maximize GT2, where G stands for the rate at which each qubit can be coherently driven and T2 is the qubit’s phase coherence time.
This is challenging, as increasing G (e.g. by coupling the qubit more strongly to external stimuli) often leads to deleterious effects on T2. Here, we study a physical situation in which both G and T2 can be simultaneously optimized. We measure the coupling to microwave superconducting coplanar waveguides of pure (i.e. non magnetically diluted) crystals of HoW10 magnetic clusters, which show level anticrossings, or spin clock transitions, at equidistant magnetic fields. The absorption lines give a complete picture of the magnetic energy level scheme and, in particular, confirm the existence of such clock transitions. The quantitative analysis of the microwave transmission allows monitoring the overlap between spin wave functions and gives information about their coupling to the environment and to the propagating photons. The formation of quantum superpositions of spin-up and spin-down states at the clock transitions allows simultaneously maximizing the spin-photon coupling and minimizing environmental spin perturbations. Using the same experimental device, we also explore the coupling of these qubits to a 11.7 GHz cavity mode, arising from a nonperfect microwave propagation at the chip boundaries and find a collective spin to single photon coupling GN = 100 MHz. The engineering of spin states in molecular systems offers a promising strategy to combine sizeable photon-mediated interactions, thus scalability, with a sufficient isolation from unwanted magnetic noise sources.

Chiral quantum optics in photonic sawtooth lattices

  1. Eduardo Sánchez-Burillo,
  2. Chao Wan,
  3. David Zueco,
  4. and Alejandro González-Tudela
Chiral quantum optics has become a burgeoning field due to its potential applications in quantum networks or quantum simulation of many-body physics. Current implementations are based
on the interplay between local polarization and propagation direction of light in nanophotonic structures. In this manuscript, we propose an alternative platform based on coupling quantum emitters to a photonic \emph{sawtooth} lattice, a one-dimensional model with an effective flux per plaquette introduced by complex tunnelings. We study the dynamics emerging from such structured photonic bath and find the conditions to obtain quasi-perfect directional emission when the emitters are resonant with the band. In addition, we find that the photons in this bath can also mediate complex emitter-emitter interactions tunable in range and phase when the emitters transition frequencies lie within a band-gap. Since these effects do not rely on polarization they can be observed in platforms beyond nanophotonics such as matter-waves or circuit QED ones, of which we discuss a possible implementation.

PT-symmetric circuit-QED

  1. Fernando Quijandría,
  2. Uta Naether,
  3. Sahin K. Özdemir,
  4. Franco Nori,
  5. and David Zueco
The Hermiticity axiom of quantum mechanics guarantees that the energy spectrum is real and the time evolution is unitary (probability-preserving). Nevertheless, non-Hermitian but -symmetric
Hamiltonians may also have real eigenvalues. Systems described by such effective -symmetric Hamiltonians have been realized in experiments using coupled systems with balanced loss (dissipation) and gain (amplification), and their corresponding classical dynamics has been studied. A -symmetric system emerging from a quantum dynamics is highly desirable, in order to understand what -symmetry and the powerful mathematical and physical concepts around it will bring to the next generation of quantum technologies. Here, we address this need by proposing and studying a circuit-QED architecture that consists of two coupled resonators and two qubits (each coupled to one resonator). By means of external driving fields on the qubits, we are able to tune gain and losses in the resonators. Starting with the quantum dynamics of this system, we show the emergence of the -symmetry via the selection of both driving amplitudes and frequencies. We engineer the system such that a non-number conserving dipole-dipole interaction emerges, introducing an instability at large coupling strengths. The -symmetry and its breaking, as well as the predicted instability in this circuit-QED system can be observed in a transmission experiment.

Stationary discrete solitons in circuit QED

  1. Uta Naether,
  2. Fernando Quijandría,
  3. Juan José García-Ripoll,
  4. and David Zueco
We demonstrate that stationary localized solutions (discrete solitons) exist in a one dimensional Bose-Hubbard lattices with gain and loss in the semiclassical regime. Stationary solutions,
by defi- nition, are robust and do not demand for state preparation. Losses, unavoidable in experiments, are not a drawback, but a necessary ingredient for these modes to exist. The semiclassical calculations are complemented with their classical limit and dynamics based on a Gutzwiller Ansatz. We argue that circuit QED architectures are ideal platforms for realizing the physics developed here. Finally, within the input-output formalism, we explain how to experimentally access the different phases, including the solitons, of the chain.

Nonlinear quantum optics in the (ultra)strong light-matter coupling

  1. Eduardo Sánchez-Burillo,
  2. Juanjo García-Ripoll,
  3. Luis Martín-Moreno,
  4. and David Zueco
The propagation of N photons in one dimensional waveguides coupled to M qubits is discussed, both in the strong and ultrastrong qubit-waveguide coupling. Special emphasis is placed
on the characterisation of the nonlinear response and its linear limit for the scattered photons as a function of N, M, qubit inter distance and light-matter coupling. The quantum evolution is numerically solved via the Matrix Product States technique. Both the time evolution for the field and qubits is computed. The nonlinear character (as a function of N/M) depends on the computed observable. While perfect reflection is obtained for N/M≅1, photon-photon correlations are still resolved for ratios N/M=2/20. Inter-qubit distance enhances the nonlinear response. Moving to the ultrastrong coupling regime, we observe that inelastic processes are \emph{robust} against the number of qubits and that the qubit-qubit interaction mediated by the photons is qualitatively modified. The theory developed in this work modelises experiments in circuit QED, photonic crystals and dielectric waveguides

Nanometric constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

  1. Mark David Jenkins,
  2. Uta Naether,
  3. Miguel Ciria,
  4. Javier Sesé,
  5. James Atkinson,
  6. Carlos Sánchez-Azqueta,
  7. Enrique del Barco,
  8. Johannes Majer,
  9. David Zueco,
  10. and Fernando Luis
We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanometric constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down
to 50 nm, the RF currents are concentrated into a small cross section and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and changes in transmission and Q-factor lower than 20%. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing and electron paramagnetic resonance.

Quantum chaos in an ultra-strongly coupled bosonic junction

  1. Uta Naether,
  2. Juan José García-Ripoll,
  3. Juan José Mazo,
  4. and David Zueco
The classical and quantum dynamics of two ultra-strongly coupled and weakly nonlinear resonators cannot be explained using the Discrete Nonlinear Schr“odinger Equation or the
Bose-Hubbard model, respectively. Instead, a model beyond the Rotating Wave Approximation must be studied. In the classical limit this model is not integrable and becomes chaotic for a finite window of parameters. For the quantum dimer we find corresponding regions of stability and chaos. The more striking consequence for both classical and quantum chaos is that the tunneling time between the sites becomes unpredictable. These results, including the transition to chaos, can be tested in experiments with superconducting microwave resonators.

Employing Circuit QED to Measure Nonequilibrium Work Fluctuations

  1. Michele Campisi,
  2. Ralf Blattmann,
  3. Sigmund Kohler,
  4. David Zueco,
  5. and Peter Hänggi
We study an interferometric method for the measurement of the statistics of work performed on a driven quantum system, which has been put forward recently [Dorner et al., Phys. Rev.
Lett. 110 230601 (2013), Mazzola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 230602 (2013)]. The method allows replacing two projective measurements of the energy of the driven system with qubit tomography of an ancilla that is appropriately coupled to it. We highlight that this method could be employed to obtain the work statistics of closed as well as open driven system, even in the strongly dissipative regime. We then illustrate an implementation of the method in a circuit QED set-up, which allows one to experimentally obtain the work statistics of a parametrically driven harmonic oscillator. Our implementation is an extension of the original method, in which two ancilla-qubits are employed and the work statistics is retrieved through two-qubit state tomography. Our simulations demonstrate the experimental feasibility.