I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

14
Mai
2019

# Calibration of the cross-resonance two-qubit gate between directly-coupled transmons

Quantum computation requires the precise control of the evolution of a quantum system, typically through application of discrete quantum logic gates on a set of qubits. Here, we use

the cross-resonance interaction to implement a gate between two superconducting transmon qubits with a direct static dispersive coupling. We demonstrate a practical calibration procedure for the optimization of the gate, combining continuous and repeated-gate Hamiltonian tomography with step-wise reduction of dominant two-qubit coherent errors through mapping to microwave control parameters. We show experimentally that this procedure can enable a ZX^−π/2 gate with a fidelity F=97.0(7)%, measured with interleaved randomized benchmarking. We show this in a architecture with out-of-plane control and readout that is readily extensible to larger scale quantum circuits.

12
Mai
2019

# Scalable collective Lamb shift of a 1D superconducting qubit array in front of a mirror

We theoretically investigate resonant dipole-dipole interaction (RDDI) between artificial atoms in a 1D geometry, implemented by N transmon qubits coupled through a transmission line.

Similarly to the atomic cases, RDDI comes from exchange of virtual photons of the unexcited modes, and causes the so-called collective Lamb shift (CLS). To probe the shift, we effectively set one end of the transmission line as a mirror, and examine the reflection spectrum of the probe field from the other end. Our calculation shows that when a qubit is placed at the node of the standing wave formed by the incident and reflected waves, even though it is considered to be decoupled from the field, it results in large energy splitting in the spectral profile of a resonant qubit located elsewhere. This directly signals the interplay of virtual photon processes and explicitly demonstrates the CLS. We further derive a master equation to describe the system, which can take into account mismatch of participating qubits and dephasing effects. Our calculation also demonstrates the superradiant and subradiant nature of the atomic states, and how the CLS scales when more qubits are involved.

10
Mai
2019

# Tunable Microwave Single-photon Source Based on Transmon Qubit with High Efficiency

Single-photon sources are of great interest because they are key elements in different promising applications of quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient tunable

on-demand microwave single-photon source based on a transmon qubit with the intrinsic emission efficiency more than 99%. To confirm the single-photon property of the source, we study the single-photon interference in a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) type setup and measure the correlation functions of the emission field using linear detectors with a GPU-enhanced signal processing technique. The antibunching in the second-order correlation function is clearly observed. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental results. Such a high-quality single-photon source can be used as a building block of devices for quantum communication, simulations and information processing in the microwave regime.

08
Mai
2019

# Demonstration of Adiabatic Variational Quantum Computing with a Superconducting Quantum Coprocessor

Adiabatic quantum computing enables the preparation of many-body ground states. This is key for applications in chemistry, materials science, and beyond. Realisation poses major experimental

challenges: Direct analog implementation requires complex Hamiltonian engineering, while the digitised version needs deep quantum gate circuits. To bypass these obstacles, we suggest an adiabatic variational hybrid algorithm, which employs short quantum circuits and provides a systematic quantum adiabatic optimisation of the circuit parameters. The quantum adiabatic theorem promises not only the ground state but also that the excited eigenstates can be found. We report the first experimental demonstration that many-body eigenstates can be efficiently prepared by an adiabatic variational algorithm assisted with a multi-qubit superconducting coprocessor. We track the real-time evolution of the ground and exited states of transverse-field Ising spins with a fidelity up that can reach about 99%.

03
Mai
2019

# Absence of a dissipative quantum phase transition in Josephson junctions

Half a century after its discovery, the Josephson junction has become the most important nonlinear quantum electronic component at our disposal. It has helped reshaping the SI system

around quantum effects and is used in scores of quantum devices. By itself, the use of Josephson junctions in the Volt metrology seems to imply an exquisite understanding of the component in every aspects. Yet, surprisingly, there have been long-standing subtle issues regarding the modeling of the interaction of a junction with its electromagnetic environment which has generated broadly accepted misconceptions and paradoxical predictions. Here, we invalidate experimentally one such prediction, namely that a Josephson junction connected to a resistor becomes insulating beyond a given value of the resistance, due to a dissipative quantum phase transition. Our work clarifies how this key quantum component should be modeled and resolves contradictions in the theory.

# Superconducting circuit protected by two-Cooper-pair tunneling

We present a protected superconducting qubit based on an effective circuit element that only allows pairs of Cooper pairs to tunnel. These dynamics give rise to a nearly degenerate

ground state manifold indexed by the parity of tunneled Cooper pairs. We show that, when the circuit element is shunted by a large capacitance, this manifold can be used as a logical qubit that we expect to be insensitive to multiple relaxation and dephasing mechanisms.

01
Mai
2019

# Bias-preserving gates with stabilized cat qubits

The code capacity threshold for error correction using qubits which exhibit asymmetric or biased noise channels is known to be much higher than with qubits without such structured noise.However, it is unclear how much this improvement persists when realistic circuit level noise is taken into account. This is because implementations of gates which do not commute with the dominant error un-bias the noise channel. In particular, a native bias-preserving controlled-NOT (CX) gate, which is an essential ingredient of stabilizer codes, is not possible in strictly two-level systems. Here we overcome the challenge of implementing a bias-preserving CX gate by using stabilized cat qubits in driven nonlinear oscillators. The physical noise channel of this qubit is biased towards phase-flips, which increase linearly with the size of the cat, while bit-flips are exponentially suppressed with cat size. Remarkably, the error channel of this native CX gate between two such cat qubits is also dominated by phase-flips, while bit-flips remain exponentially suppressed. This CX gate relies on the topological phase that arises from the rotation of the cat qubit in phase space. The availability of bias-preserving CX gates opens a path towards fault-tolerant codes tailored to biased-noise cat qubits with high threshold and low overhead. As an example, we analyze a scheme for concatenated error correction using cat qubits. We find that the availability of CX gates with moderately sized cat qubits, having mean photon number <10, improves a rigorous lower bound on the fault-tolerance threshold by a factor of two and decreases the overhead in logical Clifford operations by a factor of 5. We expect these estimates to improve significantly with further optimization and with direct use of other codes such as topological codes tailored to biased noise.[/expand]

# Fast high fidelity quantum non-demolition qubit readout via a non-perturbative cross-Kerr coupling

Qubit readout is an indispensable element of any quantum information processor. In this work we propose an original coupling scheme between qubit and cavity mode based on a non-perturbative

cross-Kerr interaction. It leads to an alternative readout mechanism for superconducting qubits. This scheme, using the same experimental techniques as the perturbative cross-Kerr coupling (dispersive interaction), leads to an alternative readout mechanism for superconducting qubits. This new process, being non-perturbative, maximizes speed of qubit readout, single-shot fidelity and its quantum non-demolition (QND) behavior at the same time, while minimizing the effect of unwanted decay channels such as, for example, the Purcell effect. We observed 97.4 % single-shot readout fidelity for short 50 ns pulses. Using long measurement, we quantified the QND-ness to 99 %.

# Observation of multi-component atomic Schrödinger cat states of up to 20 qubits

We report on deterministic generation of 18-qubit genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and multi-component atomic Schrödinger cat states of up to 20 qubits on

a quantum processor, which features 20 superconducting qubits interconnected by a bus resonator. By engineering a one-axis twisting Hamiltonian enabled by the resonator-mediated interactions, the system of qubits initialized coherently evolves to an over-squeezed, non-Gaussian regime, where atomic Schrödinger cat states, i.e., superpositions of atomic coherent states including GHZ state, appear at specific time intervals in excellent agreement with theory. With high controllability, we are able to take snapshots of the dynamics by plotting quasidistribution Q-functions of the 20-qubit atomic cat states, and globally characterize the 18-qubit GHZ state which yields a fidelity of 0.525±0.005 confirming genuine eighteen-partite entanglement. Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement controllably created so far in solid state architectures, and the process of generating and detecting multipartite entanglement may promise applications in practical quantum metrology, quantum information processing and quantum computation.

30
Apr
2019

# Flux Qubit Readout in the Persistent Current Basis at arbitrary Bias Points

Common flux qubit readout schemes are qubit dominated, meaning they measure in the energy eigenbasis of the qubit. For various applications meausrements in a basis different from the

actual energy eigenbasis are required. Here we present an indirect measurement protocol, which is detector dominated instead of qubit dominated, yielding a projective measurements in the persistent current basis for arbitrary bias points. We show that with our setup it is possible to perform a quantum nondemolition measurement (QND) in the persistent current basis at all flux bias points with fidelities reaching almost 100%.