I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

22
Okt
2021

# Error-divisible two-qubit gates

We introduce a simple, widely applicable formalism for designing „error-divisible“ two qubit gates: a quantum gate set where fractional rotations have proportionally reduced

error compared to the full entangling gate. In current noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) algorithms, performance is largely constrained by error proliferation at high circuit depths, of which two-qubit gate error is generally the dominant contribution. Further, in many hardware implementations, arbitrary two qubit rotations must be composed from multiple two-qubit stock gates, further increasing error. This work introduces a set of criteria, and example waveforms and protocols to satisfy them, using superconducting qubits with tunable couplers for constructing continuous gate sets with significantly reduced error for small-angle rotations. If implemented at scale, NISQ algorithm performance would be significantly improved by our error-divisible gate protocols.

21
Okt
2021

# Active resonator depletion with short microwave pulses

We propose a physical model to explain the phenomenon of photon depletion in superconducting microwave resonators in the dispersive regime, coupled to Josephson junction qubits, via

short microwave pulses. We discuss the conditions for matching the amplitude and phase of the pulse optimally within the framework of the model, allowing for significant reductions in reset times after measurement of the qubits. We consider how to deal with pulses and transient dynamics within the input-output formalism, along with a reassessment of the underlying assumptions for a wide-band pulse.

20
Okt
2021

# Machine Learning for Continuous Quantum Error Correction on Superconducting Qubits

We propose a machine learning algorithm for continuous quantum error correction that is based on the use of a recurrent neural network to identity bit-flip errors from continuous noisy

syndrome measurements. The algorithm is designed to operate on measurement signals deviating from the ideal behavior in which the mean value corresponds to a code syndrome value and the measurement has white noise. We analyze continuous measurements taken from a superconducting architecture using three transmon qubits to identify three significant practical examples of non-ideal behavior, namely auto-correlation at temporal short lags, transient syndrome dynamics after each bit-flip, and drift in the steady-state syndrome values over the course of many experiments. Based on these real-world imperfections, we generate synthetic measurement signals from which to train the recurrent neural network, and then test its proficiency when implementing active error correction, comparing this with a traditional double threshold scheme and a discrete Bayesian classifier. The results show that our machine learning protocol is able to outperform the double threshold protocol across all tests, achieving a final state fidelity comparable to the discrete Bayesian classifier.

18
Okt
2021

# Vantablack Shielding of Superconducting Qubit Systems

Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) experiments on superconducting qubit systems typically employ radiation shields coated in photon absorbing materials to achieve high qubit coherence

and low microwave resonator losses. In this work, we present preliminary results on the performance of Vantablack as a novel infrared (IR) shielding material for cQED systems. We compare the coherence properties and residual excited state population (or effective qubit temperature) of a single-junction transmon qubit housed in a shield coated with a standard epoxy-based IR absorbing material, i.e. Berkeley Black, to the coherence and effective temperature of the same qubit in a shield coated in Vantablack. Based on a statistical analysis of multiple qubit coherence measurements we find that the performance of the radiation shield coated with Vantablack is comparable in performance to the standard coating. However, we find that in the Vantablack coated shield the qubit has a higher effective temperature. These results indicate that improvements are likely required to optimize the performance of Vantablack as an IR shielding material for superconducting qubit experiments and we discuss possible routes for such improvements. Finally we describe possible future experiments to more precisely quantify the performance of Vantablack to improve the coherences of more complex cQED systems.

# Non-destructive optical readout of a superconducting qubit

Entangling superconducting quantum processors via light would enable new means of secure communication and distributed quantum computing. However, transducing quantum signals between

these disparate regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum remains an outstanding goal, and interfacing superconducting qubits with electro-optic transducers presents significant challenges due to the deleterious effects of optical photons on superconductors. Moreover, many remote entanglement protocols require multiple qubit gates both preceding and following the upconversion of the quantum state, and thus an ideal transducer should leave the state of the qubit unchanged: more precisely, the backaction from the transducer on the qubit should be minimal. Here we demonstrate non-destructive optical readout of a superconducting transmon qubit via a continuously operated electro-optic transducer. The modular nature of the transducer and circuit QED system used in this work enable complete isolation of the qubit from optical photons, and the backaction on the qubit from the transducer is less than that imparted by thermal radiation from the environment. Moderate improvements in transducer bandwidth and added noise will enable us to leverage the full suite of tools available in circuit QED to demonstrate transduction of non-classical signals from a superconducting qubit to the optical domain.

16
Okt
2021

# Quantum Correlations in Jahn-Teller Molecular Systems Simulated with Superconducting Circuits

We explore quantum correlations, in particular, quantum entanglement, among vibrational phonon modes as well as between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems,

described by Jahn-Teller mechanism. Specifically, to isolate and simplify the phonon-electron interactions in a complex molecular system, the basis of our discussions is taken to be the proposal of simulating two-frequency Jahn-Teller systems using superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics systems (circuit QED) by Tekin Dereli and co-workers in 2012. We evaluate the quantum correlations, in particular entanglement between the vibrational phonon modes, and present analytical explanations using a single privileged Jahn-Teller mode picture. Furthermore, spin-orbit entanglement or quantum correlations between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are examined, too. We conclude by discussing experimental feasibility to detect such quantum correlations, considering the dephasing and decoherence in state-of-the-art superconducting two-level systems (qubits).

15
Okt
2021

# Performance of a Kinetic-Inductance Traveling-Wave Parametric Amplifier at 4 Kelvin: Toward an Alternative to Semiconductor Amplifiers

Most microwave readout architectures in quantum computing or sensing rely on a semiconductor amplifier at 4 K, typically a high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Despite its remarkable

noise performance, a conventional HEMT dissipates several milliwatts of power, posing a practical challenge to scale up the number of qubits or sensors addressed in these architectures. As an alternative, we present an amplification chain consisting of a kinetic-inductance traveling-wave parametric amplifier (KI-TWPA) placed at 4 K, followed by a HEMT placed at 70 K, and demonstrate a chain-added noise TΣ=6.3±0.5 K between 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. While, in principle, any parametric amplifier can be quantum limited even at 4 K, in practice we find the KI-TWPA’s performance limited by the temperature of its inputs, and by an excess of noise Tex=1.9 K. The dissipation of the KI-TWPA’s rf pump constitutes the main power load at 4 K and is about one percent that of a HEMT. These combined noise and power dissipation values pave the way for the KI-TWPA’s use as a replacement for semiconductor amplifiers.

# FPGA-based electronic system for the control and readout of superconducting qubit systems

This paper reports the development of an electronic system for the control and readout of superconducting qubits. The system includes a timing control module (TCM), four-channel arbitrary

waveform generators (AWGs), four-channel data acquisition modules (DAQs), six-channel bias voltage generators (BVGs), a controller card, and mixers. The AWGs have a 2-GSa/s sampling rate and a 14-bit amplitude resolution. The DAQs provide a 1-GSa/s sampling rate and 12-bit amplitude resolution. The BVGs provide an ultra-precise DC voltage with a noise level of ~6 {\mu}Vp-p. The TCM sends system clock and global triggers to each module through a high-speed backplane to achieve precise timing control. These modules are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). While achieving highly customized functions, the physical interface and communication protocol are compatible with each other. The modular design is suitable for quantum computing experiments of different scales up to hundreds of qubits. We implement a real-time digital signal processing system in the FPGA, enabling precise timing control, arbitrary waveform generation, parallel IQ demodulation for qubit state discrimination, and the generation of real-time qubit-state-dependent trigger signals for active feedback control. We demonstrate the functionalities and performance of this system using a fluxonium quantum processor.

14
Okt
2021

# 0-π qubit in one Josephson junction

Quantum states are usually fragile which makes quantum computation being not as stable as classical computation. Quantum correction codes can protect quantum states but need a large

number of physical qubits to code a single logic qubit. Alternatively, the protection at the hardware level has been recently developed to maintain the coherence of the quantum information by using symmetries. However, it generally has to pay the expense of increasing the complexity of the quantum devices. In this work, we show that the protection at the hardware level can be approached without increasing the complexity of the devices. The interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman splitting in the semiconductor allows us to tune the Josephson coupling in terms of the spin degree of freedom of Cooper pairs, the hallmark of the superconducting spintronics. This leads to the implementation of the parity-protected 0-π superconducting qubit with only one highly transparent superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junction, which makes our proposal immune from the various fabrication imperfections.

12
Okt
2021

# Path-optimized nonadiabatic geometric quantum computation on superconducting qubits

Quantum computation based on nonadiabatic geometric phases has attracted a broad range of interests, due to its fast manipulation and inherent noise resistance. However, to obtain universal

geometric quantum gates, the required evolution paths are usually limited to some special ones, and the evolution times of which are still longer than dynamical quantum gates, resulting in weakening of robustness and more infidelity of the implemented geometric gates. Here, we propose a path-optimized scheme for geometric quantum computation on superconducting transmon qubits, where high-fidelity and robust universal nonadiabatic geometric gates can be implemented, based on conventional experimental setups. Specifically, we find that, by selecting appropriate evolution paths, the constructed geometric gates can be superior to their corresponding dynamical ones under different local errors. Through our numerical simulations, we obtain the fidelities for single-qubit geometric Phase, π/8 and Hadamard gates as 99.93%, 99.95% and 99.95%, respectively. Remarkably, the fidelity for two-qubit control-phase gate can be as high as 99.87%. Therefore, our scheme provides a new perspective for geometric quantum computation, making it more promising in the application of large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computation.