I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

28
Sep
2023

# Engineering Entangled Coherent States of Magnons and Phonons via a Transmon Qubit

We propose a scheme for generating and controlling entangled coherent states (ECS) of magnons, i.e. the quanta of the collective spin excitations in magnetic systems, or phonons in

mechanical resonators. The proposed hybrid circuit architecture comprises a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a pair of magnonic Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) spherical resonators or mechanical beam resonators via flux-mediated interactions. Specifically, the coupling results from the magnetic/mechanical quantum fluctuations modulating the qubit inductor, formed by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We show that the resulting radiation-pressure interaction of the qubit with each mode, can be employed to generate maximally-entangled states of magnons or phonons. In addition, we numerically demonstrate a protocol for the preparation of magnonic and mechanical Bell states with high fidelity including realistic dissipation mechanisms. Furthermore, we have devised a scheme for reading out the prepared states using standard qubit control and resonator field displacements. Our work demonstrates an alternative platform for quantum information using ECS in hybrid magnonic and mechanical quantum networks.

25
Sep
2023

# ZZ-Interaction-Free Single-Qubit-Gate Optimization in Superconducting Qubits

Overcoming the issue of qubit-frequency fluctuations is essential to realize stable and practical quantum computing with solid-state qubits. Static ZZ interaction, which causes a frequency

shift of a qubit depending on the state of neighboring qubits, is one of the major obstacles to integrating fixed-frequency transmon qubits. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate ZZ-interaction-free single-qubit-gate operations on a superconducting transmon qubit by utilizing a semi-analytically optimized pulse based on a perturbative analysis. The gate is designed to be robust against slow qubit-frequency fluctuations. The robustness of the optimized gate spans a few MHz, which is sufficient for suppressing the adverse effects of the ZZ interaction. Our result paves the way for an efficient approach to overcoming the issue of ZZ interaction without any additional hardware overhead.

22
Sep
2023

# Encoding optimization for quantum machine learning demonstrated on a superconducting transmon qutrit

Qutrits, three-level quantum systems, have the advantage of potentially requiring fewer components than the typically used two-level qubits to construct equivalent quantum circuits.

This work investigates the potential of qutrit parametric circuits in machine learning classification applications. We propose and evaluate different data-encoding schemes for qutrits, and find that the classification accuracy varies significantly depending on the used encoding. We therefore propose a training method for encoding optimization that allows to consistently achieve high classification accuracy. Our theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the qutrit classifier can achieve high classification accuracy using fewer components than a comparable qubit system. We showcase the qutrit classification using the optimized encoding method on superconducting transmon qutrits, demonstrating the practicality of the proposed method on noisy hardware. Our work demonstrates high-precision ternary classification using fewer circuit elements, establishing qutrit parametric quantum circuits as a viable and efficient tool for quantum machine learning applications.

21
Sep
2023

# Constraining work fluctuations of non-Hermitian dynamics across the exceptional point of a superconducting qubit

Thermodynamics constrains changes to the energy of a system, both deliberate and random, via its first and second laws. When the system is not in equilibrium, fluctuation theorems such

as the Jarzynski equality further restrict the distributions of deliberate work done. Such fluctuation theorems have been experimentally verified in small, non-equilibrium quantum systems undergoing unitary or decohering dynamics. Yet, their validity in systems governed by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian has long been contentious, due to the false premise of the Hamiltonian’s dual and equivalent roles in dynamics and energetics. Here we show that work fluctuations in a non-Hermitian qubit obey the Jarzynski equality even if its Hamiltonian has complex or purely imaginary eigenvalues. With post-selection on a dissipative superconducting circuit undergoing a cyclic parameter sweep, we experimentally quantify the work distribution using projective energy measurements and show that the fate of the Jarzynski equality is determined by the parity-time symmetry of, and the energetics that result from, the corresponding non-Hermitian, Floquet Hamiltonian. By distinguishing the energetics from non-Hermitian dynamics, our results provide the recipe for investigating the non-equilibrium quantum thermodynamics of such open systems.

20
Sep
2023

# Quantum heat valve and entanglement in superconducting LC resonators

Quantum superconducting circuit with flexible coupler has been a powerful platform for designing quantum thermal machines. In this letter, we employ the tunable coupling of two superconducting

resonators to realize a heat valve by modulating magnetic flux using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). It is shown that a heat valve can be realized in a wide parameter range. We find a consistent relation between the heat current and quantum entanglement, which indicates the dominant role of entanglement on the heat valve. It provides an insightful understanding of quantum features in quantum heat machines.

18
Sep
2023

# Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for non-Hermitian systems: application for -symmetric circuit QED

Combining non-hermiticity and interactions yields novel effects in open quantum many-body systems. Here, we develop the generalized Schrieffer-Wolff transformation and derive the effective

Hamiltonian suitable for various quasi-degenerate \textit{non-Hermitian} systems. We apply our results to an exemplary –symmetric circuit QED composed of two non-Hermitian qubits embedded in a lossless resonator. We consider a resonant quantum circuit as |ωr−Ω|≪ωr, where Ω and ωr are qubits and resonator frequencies, respectively, providing well-defined groups of quasi-degenerate resonant states. For such a system, using direct numerical diagonalization we obtain the dependence of the low-lying eigenspectrum on the interaction strength between a single qubit and the resonator, g, and the gain (loss) parameter γ, and compare that with the eigenvalues obtained analytically using the effective Hamiltonian of resonant states. We identify –symmetry broken and unbroken phases, trace the formation of Exceptional Points of the second and the third order, and provide a complete phase diagram g−γ of low-lying resonant states. We relate the formation of Exceptional Points to the additional -pseudo-Hermitian symmetry of the system and show that non-hermiticity mixes the „dark“ and the „bright“ states, which has a direct experimental consequence.

# Multimode physics of the unimon circuit

We consider a superconducting half-wavelength resonator that is grounded at its both ends and contains a single Josephson junction. Previously this circuit was considered as a unimon

qubit in the single-mode approximation where dc-phase-biasing the junction to π leads to increased anharmonicity and 99.9% experimentally observed single-qubit gate fidelity. Inspired by the promising first experimental results, we develop here a theoretical and numerical model for the detailed understanding of the multimode physics of the unimon circuit. To this end, first, we consider the high-frequency modes of the unimon circuit and find that even though these modes are at their ground state, they imply a significant renormalization to the Josephson energy. We introduce an efficient method how the relevant modes can be fully taken into account and show that unexcited high-lying modes lead to corrections in the qubit energy and anharmonicity. Interestingly, provided that the junction is offset from the middle of the circuit, we find strong cross-Kerr coupling strengths between a few low-lying modes. This observation paves the way for the utilization of the multimode structure, for example, as several qubits embedded into a single unimon circuit.

14
Sep
2023

# A phononic crystal coupled to a transmission line via an artificial atom

We study a phononic crystal interacting with an artificial atom { a superconducting quantum system { in the quantum regime. The phononic crystal is made of a long lattice of narrow

metallic stripes on a quatz surface. The artificial atom in turn interacts with a transmission line therefore two degrees of freedom of different nature, acoustic and electromagnetic, are coupled with a single quantum object. A scattering spectrum of propagating electromagnetic waves on the artificial atom visualizes acoustic modes of the phononic crystal. We simulate the system and found quasinormal modes of our phononic crystal and their properties. The calculations are consistent with the experimentally found modes, which are fitted to the dispersion branches of the phononic crystal near the first Brillouin zone edge. Our geometry allows to realize effects of quantum acoustics on a simple and compact phononic crystal.

13
Sep
2023

# Fast Flux-Activated Leakage Reduction for Superconducting Quantum Circuits

Quantum computers will require quantum error correction to reach the low error rates necessary for solving problems that surpass the capabilities of conventional computers. One of the

dominant errors limiting the performance of quantum error correction codes across multiple technology platforms is leakage out of the computational subspace arising from the multi-level structure of qubit implementations. Here, we present a resource-efficient universal leakage reduction unit for superconducting qubits using parametric flux modulation. This operation removes leakage down to our measurement accuracy of 7⋅10−4 in approximately 50ns with a low error of 2.5(1)⋅10−3 on the computational subspace, thereby reaching durations and fidelities comparable to those of single-qubit gates. We demonstrate that using the leakage reduction unit in repeated weight-two stabilizer measurements reduces the total number of detected errors in a scalable fashion to close to what can be achieved using leakage-rejection methods which do not scale. Our approach does neither require additional control electronics nor on-chip components and is applicable to both auxiliary and data qubits. These benefits make our method particularly attractive for mitigating leakage in large-scale quantum error correction circuits, a crucial requirement for the practical implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computation.

# Circuit QED with a Giant Atom Coupling to Left-handed Superlattice Metamaterials

Giant atoms, where the dipole approximation ceases to be valid, allow us to observe unconventional quantum optical phenomena arising from interference and time-delay effects. Most previous

studies consider giant atoms coupling to conventional materials with right-handed dispersion. In this study, we first investigate the quantum dynamics of a giant atom interacting with left-handed superlattice metamaterials. Different from those right-handed counterparts, the left-handed superlattices exhibit an asymmetric band gap generated by anomalous dispersive bands and Bragg scattering bands. First, by assuming that the giant atom is in resonance with the continuous dispersive energy band, spontaneous emission will undergo periodic enhancement or suppression due to the interference effect. At the resonant position, there is a significant discrepancy in the spontaneous decay rates between the upper and lower bands, which arises from the differences in group velocity. Second, we explore the non-Markovian dynamics of the giant atom by considering the frequency of the emitter outside the energy band, where bound states will be induced by the interference between two coupling points. By employing both analytical and numerical methods, we demonstrate that the steady atomic population will be periodically modulated, driven by variations in the size of the giant atom. The presence of asymmetric band edges leads to diverse interference dynamics. Finally, we consider the case of two identical emitters coupling to the waveguide and find that the energy within the two emitters undergoes exchange through the mechanism Rabi oscillations.