I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

25
Mai
2023

# Niobium Quantum Interference Microwave Circuits with Monolithic Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanobridge Junctions

Nonlinear microwave circuits are key elements for many groundbreaking research directions and technologies, such as quantum computation and quantum sensing. The majority of microwave

circuits with Josephson nonlinearities to date is based on aluminum thin films, and therefore they are severely restricted in their operation range regarding temperatures and external magnetic fields. Here, we present the realization of superconducting niobium microwave resonators with integrated, three-dimensional (3D) nanobridge-based superconducting quantum interference devices. The 3D nanobridges (constriction weak links) are monolithically patterned into pre-fabricated microwave LC circuits using neon ion beam milling, and the resulting quantum interference circuits show frequency tunabilities, flux responsivities and Kerr nonlinearities on par with comparable aluminum nanobridge devices, but with the perspective of a much larger operation parameter regime. Our results reveal great potential for application of these circuits in hybrid systems with e.g. magnons and spin ensembles or in flux-mediated optomechanics.

19
Mai
2023

# Quantum transduction of superconducting qubit in electro-optomechanical and electro-optomagnonical system

We study the quantum transduction of a superconducting qubit to an optical photon in electro-optomechanical and electro-optomagnonical systems. The electro-optomechanical system comprises

a flux-tunable transmon qubit coupled to a suspended mechanical beam, which then couples to an optical cavity. Similarly, in an electro-optomagnonical system, a flux-tunable transmon qubit is coupled to an optical whispering gallery mode via a magnon excitation in a YIG ferromagnetic sphere. In both systems, the transduction process is done in sequence. In the first sequence, the qubit states are encoded in coherent excitations of phonon/magnon modes through the phonon/magnon-qubit interaction, which is non-demolition in the qubit part. We then measure the phonon/magnon excitations, which reveal the qubit states, by counting the average number of photons in the optical cavities. The measurement of the phonon/magnon excitations can be performed at a regular intervals of time.

18
Mai
2023

# Fabrication of Al/AlOx/Al junctions with high uniformity and stability on sapphire substrates

Tantalum and aluminum on sapphire are widely used platforms for qubits of long coherent time. As quantum chips scale up, the number of Josephson junctions on Sapphire increases. Thus,

both the uniformity and stability of the junctions are crucial to quantum devices, such as scalable superconducting quantum computer circuit, and quantum-limited amplifiers. By optimizing the fabrication process, especially, the conductive layer during the electron beam lithography process, Al/AlOx/Al junctions of sizes ranging from 0.0169 to 0.04 {\mu}m2 on sapphire substrates were prepared. The relative standard deviation of room temperature resistances (RN) of these junctions is better than 1.7% on 15 mmx15 mm chips, and better than 2.66% on 2 inch wafers, which is the highest uniformity on sapphire substrates has been reported. The junctions are robust and stable in resistances as temperature changes. The resistances increase by the ratio of 9.73% relative to RN as the temperature ramp down to 4K, and restore their initial values in the reverse process as the temperature ramps back to RT. After being stored in a nitrogen cabinet for 100 days, the resistance of the junctions changed by1.16% in average. The demonstration of uniform and stable Josephson junctions in large area paves the way for the fabrication of superconducting chip of hundreds of qubits on sapphire substrates.

17
Mai
2023

# Readout-induced suppression and enhancement of superconducting qubit lifetimes

It has long been known that the lifetimes of superconducting qubits suffer during readout, increasing readout errors. We show that this degradation is due to the anti-Zeno effect, as

readout-induced dephasing broadens the qubit so that it overlaps ‚hot spots‘ of strong dissipation, likely due to two-level systems in the qubit’s bath. Using a flux-tunable qubit to probe the qubit’s frequency dependent loss, we accurately predict the change in lifetime during readout with a new self-consistent master equation that incorporates the modification to qubit relaxation due to measurement-induced dephasing. Moreover, we controllably demonstrate both the Zeno and anti-Zeno effects, which explain suppression and the rarer enhancement of qubit lifetimes during readout.

15
Mai
2023

# Error Sources of Quantum Gates in Superconducting Qubits

As transmon based superconducting qubit architectures are one of the most promising candidates for the realization of large-scale quantum computation, it is crucial to know what are

the main sources of the error in the implemented quantum gates. In this work we make a realistic assessment of the contributions of physical error sources to the infidelities of both single and two-qubit gates, where we focus on the non-adiabatic implementation of the CZ gate with tunable couplers. We consider all relevant noise sources, including non-Markovian noise, electronics imperfections and the effect of tunable couplers to the error of the computation. Furthermore, we provide a learning based framework that allows to extract the contribution of each noise source to the infidelity of a series of gates with a small number of experimental measurements.

12
Mai
2023

# High Density Fabrication Process for Single Flux Quantum Circuits

We implemented, optimized and fully tested over multiple runs a superconducting Josephson junction fabrication process tailored for the integrated digital circuits that are used for

control and readout of superconducting qubits operating at millikelvin temperatures. This process was optimized for highly energy efficient single flux quantum (ERSFQ) circuits with the critical currents reduced by factor of ~10 as compared to those operated at 4.2 K. Specifically, it implemented Josephson junctions with 10 uA unit critical current fabricated with a 10 uA/um2 critical current density. In order to circumvent the substantial size increase of the SFQ circuit inductors, we employed a NbN high kinetic inductance layer (HKIL) with a 8.5 pH/sq sheet inductance. Similarly, to maintain the small size of junction resistive shunts, we used a non-superconducting PdAu alloy with a 4.0 ohm/sq sheet resistance. For integration with quantum circuits in a multi-chip module, 5 and 10 um height bump processes were also optimized. To keep the fabrication process in check, we developed and thoroughly tested a comprehensive Process Control Monitor chip set.

09
Mai
2023

# Fast analytic and numerical design of superconducting resonators in flip-chip architectures

In superconducting quantum processors, the predictability of device parameters is of increasing importance as many labs scale up their systems to larger sizes in a 3D-integrated architecture.

In particular, the properties of superconducting resonators must be controlled well to ensure high-fidelity multiplexed readout of qubits. Here we present a method, based on conformal mapping techniques, to predict a resonator’s parameters directly from its 2D cross-section, without computationally heavy simulation. We demonstrate the method’s validity by comparing the calculated resonator frequency and coupling quality factor with those obtained through 3D finite-element-method simulation and by measurement of 15 resonators in a flip-chip-integrated architecture. We achieve a discrepancy of less than 2% between designed and measured frequencies, for 6-GHz resonators. We also propose a design method that reduces the sensitivity of the resonant frequency to variations in the inter-chip spacing.

07
Mai
2023

# Fully Directional Quantum-limited Phase-Preserving Amplifier

We present a way to achieve fully directional, quantum-limited phase-preserving amplification in a four-port, four-mode superconducting Josephson circuit by utilizing interference between

six parametric processes that couple all four modes. Full directionality, defined as the reverse isolation surpassing forward gain between the matched input and output ports of the amplifier, ensures its robustness against impedance mismatch that might be present at its output port during applications. Unlike existing directional phase-preserving amplifiers, both the minimal back-action and the quantum-limited added noise of this amplifier remains unaffected by noise incident on its output port. In addition, the matched input and output ports allow direct on-chip integration of these amplifiers with other circuit QED components, facilitating scaling up of superconducting quantum processors.

05
Mai
2023

# Microarchitectures for Heterogeneous Superconducting Quantum Computers

Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum Computing (NISQ) has dominated headlines in recent years, with the longer-term vision of Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation (FTQC) offering significant

potential albeit at currently intractable resource costs and quantum error correction (QEC) overheads. For problems of interest, FTQC will require millions of physical qubits with long coherence times, high-fidelity gates, and compact sizes to surpass classical systems. Just as heterogeneous specialization has offered scaling benefits in classical computing, it is likewise gaining interest in FTQC. However, systematic use of heterogeneity in either hardware or software elements of FTQC systems remains a serious challenge due to the vast design space and variable physical constraints.
This paper meets the challenge of making heterogeneous FTQC design practical by introducing HetArch, a toolbox for designing heterogeneous quantum systems, and using it to explore heterogeneous design scenarios. Using a hierarchical approach, we successively break quantum algorithms into smaller operations (akin to classical application kernels), thus greatly simplifying the design space and resulting tradeoffs. Specializing to superconducting systems, we then design optimized heterogeneous hardware composed of varied superconducting devices, abstracting physical constraints into design rules that enable devices to be assembled into standard cells optimized for specific operations. Finally, we provide a heterogeneous design space exploration framework which reduces the simulation burden by a factor of 10^4 or more and allows us to characterize optimal design points. We use these techniques to design superconducting quantum modules for entanglement distillation, error correction, and code teleportation, reducing error rates by 2.6x, 10.7x, and 3.0x compared to homogeneous systems.

04
Mai
2023

# Mechanically Induced Correlated Errors on Superconducting Qubits with Relaxation Times Exceeding 0.4 Milliseconds

Superconducting qubits are one of the most advanced candidates to realize scalable and fault-tolerant quantum computing. Despite recent significant advancements in the qubit lifetimes,

the origin of the loss mechanism for state-of-the-art qubits is still subject to investigation. Moreover, successful implementation of quantum error correction requires negligible correlated errors among qubits. Here, we realize ultra-coherent superconducting transmon qubits based on niobium capacitor electrodes, with lifetimes exceeding 0.4 ms. By employing a nearly quantum-limited readout chain based on a Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier, we are able to simultaneously record bit-flip errors occurring in a multiple-qubit device, revealing that the bit-flip errors in two highly coherent qubits are strongly correlated. By introducing a novel time-resolved analysis synchronized with the operation of the pulse tube cooler in a dilution refrigerator, we find that a pulse tube mechanical shock causes nonequilibrium dynamics of the qubits, leading to correlated bit-flip errors as well as transitions outside of the computational state space. Our observations confirm that coherence improvements are still attainable in transmon qubits based on the superconducting material that has been commonly used in the field. In addition, our findings are consistent with qubit dynamics induced by two-level systems and quasiparticles, deepening our understanding of the qubit error mechanisms. Finally, these results inform possible new error-mitigation strategies by decoupling superconducting qubits from their mechanical environments.