I am going to post here all newly submitted articles on the arXiv related to superconducting circuits. If your article has been accidentally forgotten, feel free to contact me

27
Sep
2022

# Magnetic field-resilient quantum-limited parametric amplifier

Superconducting parametric amplifiers are crucial components in microwave quantum circuits for enabling quantum-limited signal readout. The best-performing such amplifiers are often

based on Josephson junctions, which however are sensitive to magnetic fields. Therefore, they require magnetic shields and are not easily integratable with other quantum systems that operates within magnetic fields, such as spin ensemble quantum memories. To tackle this challenge, we have developed a kinetic inductance-based parametric amplifier featuring a NbN nanobridge instead of Josephson Junctions, which provides the desired nonlinearity for a strong parametric gain up to 42 dB. The added noise of this nanobridge kinetic-inductance parametric amplifier (hereby referred as NKPA) is calibrated and found to be 0.59±0.03 quanta for phase-preserving amplification, approaching the quantum limit of 0.5 quanta. Most importantly, we show that such excellent noise performance is preserved in an in-plane magnetic field up to 427 mT, the maximum field available in our experiment. This magnetic field-resilient parametric amplifier presents an opportunity towards addressing single electron-spin resonance and more efficient search for Axions as well as Majorana Fermions.

22
Sep
2022

# Numerical analysis of a three-wave-mixing Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier with engineered dispersion loadings

The recently proposed Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA) based on a ladder transmission line consisting of radio-frequency SQUIDs and exploiting three-wave mixing

(3WM), has great potential in achieving both a gain of 20 dB and a flat bandwidth of at least 4 GHz. To realize this concept in practical amplifiers we model the advanced JTWPA circuit with periodic modulation of the circuit parameters (engineered dispersion loadings), which allow the basic mixing process, i.e., ωs=ωp−ωi, where ωs, ωp, and ωi are the signal, the pump, and the idler frequencies, respectively, and efficiently suppress propagation of unwanted higher tones including ω2p=2ωp, ωp+s=ωp+ωs, ωp+i=ωp+ωi, etc. The engineered dispersion loadings allow achieving sufficiently wide 3 dB-bandwidth from 3 GHz to 9 GHz combined with a reasonably small ripple (±2~dB) in the gain-versus-frequency dependence.

21
Sep
2022

# Multilevel resonant tunneling in the presence of flux and charge noise

Macroscopic resonant tunneling (MRT) in flux qubits is an important experimental tool for extracting information about noise produced by a qubit’s surroundings. Here we present

a detailed derivation of the MRT signal in the RF-SQUID flux qubit allowing for effects of flux and charge fluctuations on the interwell and intrawell transitions in the system. Taking into consideration transitions between the ground state in the initial well and excited states in the target well enable us to characterize both flux and charge noise source affecting the operation of the flux qubit. The MRT peak is formed by the dominant noise source affecting specific transition, with flux noise determining the lineshape of the ground to ground tunneling, whereas charge noise reveals itself as additional broadening of the ground to excited peak.

16
Sep
2022

# Readout of a quantum processor with high dynamic range Josephson parametric amplifiers

We demonstrate a high dynamic range Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) in which the active nonlinear element is implemented using an array of rf-SQUIDs. The device is matched to the

50 Ω environment with a Klopfenstein-taper impedance transformer and achieves a bandwidth of 250-300 MHz, with input saturation powers up to -95 dBm at 20 dB gain. A 54-qubit Sycamore processor was used to benchmark these devices, providing a calibration for readout power, an estimate of amplifier added noise, and a platform for comparison against standard impedance matched parametric amplifiers with a single dc-SQUID. We find that the high power rf-SQUID array design has no adverse effect on system noise, readout fidelity, or qubit dephasing, and we estimate an upper bound on amplifier added noise at 1.6 times the quantum limit. Lastly, amplifiers with this design show no degradation in readout fidelity due to gain compression, which can occur in multi-tone multiplexed readout with traditional JPAs.

15
Sep
2022

# Three-wave mixing traveling-wave parametric amplifier with periodic variation of the circuit parameters

We report the implementation of a near-quantum-limited, traveling-wave parametric amplifier that uses three-wave mixing (3WM). To favor amplification by 3WM, we use the superconducting

nonlinear asymmetric inductive element (SNAIL) loops, biased with a dc magnetic flux. In addition, we equip the device with dispersion engineering features to create a stop-band at the second harmonic of the pump and suppress the propagation of the higher harmonics that otherwise degrade the amplification. With a chain of 440 SNAILs, the amplifier provides up to 20 dB gain and a 3-dB bandwidth of 1 GHz. The added noise by the amplifier is found to be less than one photon.

13
Sep
2022

# Nonreciprocal devices based on voltage-tunable junctions

We propose to couple the flux degree of freedom of one mode with the charge degree of freedom of a second mode in a hybrid superconducting-semiconducting architecture. Nonreciprocity

can arise in this architecture in the presence of external static magnetic fields alone. We leverage this property to engineer a passive on-chip gyrator, the fundamental two-port nonreciprocal device which can be used to build other nonreciprocal devices such as circulators. We analytically and numerically investigate how the nonlinearity of the interaction, circuit disorder and parasitic couplings affect the scattering response of the gyrator.

08
Sep
2022

# The squeezed Kerr oscillator: spectral kissing and phase-flip robustness

By applying a microwave drive to a specially designed Josephson circuit, we have realized an elementary quantum optics model, the squeezed Kerr oscillator. This model displays, as the

squeezing amplitude is increased, a cross-over from a single ground state regime to a doubly-degenerate ground state regime. In the latter case, the ground state manifold is spanned by Schrödinger-cat states, i.e. quantum superpositions of coherent states with opposite phases. For the first time, having resolved up to the tenth excited state in a spectroscopic experiment, we confirm that the proposed emergent static effective Hamiltonian correctly describes the system, despite its driven character. We also find that the lifetime of the coherent state components of the cat states increases in steps as a function of the squeezing amplitude. We interpret the staircase pattern as resulting from pairwise level kissing in the excited state spectrum. Considering the Kerr-cat qubit encoded in this ground state manifold, we achieve for the first time quantum nondemolition readout fidelities greater than 99%, and enhancement of the phase-flip lifetime by more than two orders of magnitude, while retaining universal quantum control. Our experiment illustrates the crucial role of parametric drive Hamiltonian engineering for hardware-efficient quantum computation.

07
Sep
2022

# Fano Interference in Microwave Resonator Measurements

Resonator measurements are a simple but powerful tool to characterize a material’s microwave response. The losses of a resonant mode are quantified by its internal quality factor

Qi, which can be extracted from the scattering coefficient in a microwave reflection or transmission measurement. Here we show that a systematic error on Qi arises from Fano interference of the signal with a background path. Limited knowledge of the interfering paths in a given setup translates into a range of uncertainty for Qi, which increases with the coupling coefficient. We experimentally illustrate the relevance of Fano interference in typical microwave resonator measurements and the associated pitfalls encountered in extracting Qi. On the other hand, we also show how to characterize and utilize the Fano interference to eliminate the systematic error.

06
Sep
2022

# Silicide-based Josephson field effect transistors for superconducting qubits

Scalability in the fabrication and operation of quantum computers is key to move beyond the NISQ era. So far, superconducting transmon qubits based on aluminum Josephson tunnel junctions

have demonstrated the most advanced results, though this technology is difficult to implement with large-scale facilities. An alternative „gatemon“ qubit has recently appeared, which uses hybrid superconducting/semiconducting (S/Sm) devices as gate-tuned Josephson junctions. Current implementations of these use nanowires however, of which the large-scale fabrication has not yet matured either. A scalable gatemon design could be made with CMOS Josephson Field-Effect Transistors as tunable weak link, where an ideal device has leads with a large superconducting gap that contact a short channel through high-transparency interfaces. High transparency, or low contact resistance, is achieved in the microelectronics industry with silicides, of which some turn out to be superconducting. The first part of the experimental work in this thesis covers material studies on two such materials: V3Si and PtSi, which are interesting for their high Tc, and mature integration, respectively. The second part covers experimental results on 50 nm gate length PtSi transistors, where the transparency of the S/Sm interfaces is modulated by the gate voltage. At low voltages, the transport shows no conductance at low energy, and well-defined features at the superconducting gap. The barrier height at the S/Sm interface is reduced by increasing the gate voltage, until a zero-bias peak appears around zero drain voltage, which reveals the appearance of an Andreev current. The successful gate modulation of Andreev current in a silicon-based transistor represents a step towards fully CMOS-integrated superconducting quantum computers.

30
Aug
2022

# Functional Renormalization Group Approach to Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

A nonperturbative approach is developed to analyze superconducting circuits coupled to quantized electromagnetic continuum within the framework of the functional renormalization group.

The formalism allows us to determine complete physical pictures of equilibrium properties in the circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architectures with high-impedance waveguides, which have recently become accessible in experiments. We point out that nonperturbative effects can trigger breakdown of the supposedly effective descriptions, such as the spin-boson and boundary sine-Gordon models, and lead to qualitatively new phase diagrams. The origin of the failure of conventional understandings is traced to strong renormalizations of circuit parameters at low-energy scales. Our results indicate that a nonperturbative analysis is essential for a comprehensive understanding of cQED platforms consisting of superconducting circuits and long high-impedance transmission lines.