Circuit quantum electrodynamics studies the interaction of artificial atoms and electromagnetic modes constructed from superconducting circuitry. While the theory of an atom coupledto one mode of a resonator is well studied, considering multiple modes leads to divergences which are not well understood. Here, we introduce a full quantum model of a multi-mode resonator coupled to a Josephson junction atom. Using circuit quantization, we find a Hamiltonian in which parameters of the atom are naturally renormalized as additional modes are considered. In our model, we circumvent the divergence problem, and its formulation reveals a physical understanding of the mechanisms of convergence in ubiquitous models in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

We study the dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplifier (JPA) coupled to a mechanical oscillator, as realised with a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) with an embeddedmovable arm. We analyse this system in the regime when the frequency of the mechanical oscillator is comparable in magnitude with the plasma oscillation of the SQUID. When the nano-mechanical resonator is driven, it strongly affects the dynamics of the JPA. We show that this coupling can considerably modify the dynamics of JPA and induce its multistability rather than common bistability. This analysis is relevant if one considers a JPA for detection of mechanical motion.

The stochastic evolution of quantum systems during measurement is arguably the most enigmatic feature of quantum mechanics. Measuring a quantum system typically steers it towards aclassical state, destroying any initial quantum superposition and any entanglement with other quantum systems. Remarkably, the measurement of a shared property between non-interacting quantum systems can generate entanglement starting from an uncorrelated state. Of special interest in quantum computing is the parity measurement, which projects a register of quantum bits (qubits) to a state with an even or odd total number of excitations. Crucially, a parity meter must discern the two parities with high fidelity while preserving coherence between same-parity states. Despite numerous proposals for atomic, semiconducting, and superconducting qubits, realizing a parity meter creating entanglement for both even and odd measurement results has remained an outstanding challenge. We realize a time-resolved, continuous parity measurement of two superconducting qubits using the cavity in a 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. Using postselection, we produce entanglement by parity measurement reaching 77% concurrence. Incorporating the parity meter in a feedback-control loop, we transform the entanglement generation from probabilistic to fully deterministic, achieving 66% fidelity to a target Bell state on demand. These realizations of a parity meter and a feedback-enabled deterministic measurement protocol provide key ingredients for active quantum error correction in the solid state.