Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics of Granular Aluminum Resonators

  1. N. Maleeva,
  2. L. Grünhaupt,
  3. T. Klein,
  4. F. Levy-Bertrand,
  5. O. Dupré,
  6. M. Calvo,
  7. F. Valenti,
  8. P. Winkel,
  9. F. Friedrich,
  10. W. Wernsdorfer,
  11. A. V. Ustinov,
  12. H. Rotzinger,
  13. A. Monfardini,
  14. M. V. Fistul,
  15. and I. M. Pop
The introduction of crystalline defects or dopants can give rise to so-called „dirty superconductors“, characterized by reduced coherence length and quasiparticle mean free
path. In particular, granular superconductors such as Granular Aluminum (GrAl), consisting of remarkably uniform grains connected by Josephson contacts have attracted interest since the sixties thanks to their rich phase diagram and practical advantages, like increased critical temperature, critical field, and kinetic inductance. Here we report the measurement and modeling of circuit quantum electrodynamics properties of GrAl microwave resonators in a wide frequency range, up to the spectral superconducting gap. Interestingly, we observe self-Kerr coefficients ranging from 10−2 Hz to 105 Hz, within an order of magnitude from analytic calculations based on GrAl microstructure. This amenable nonlinearity, combined with the relatively high quality factors in the 105 range, open new avenues for applications in quantum information processing and kinetic inductance detectors.