Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics of Granular Aluminum Resonators

  1. N. Maleeva,
  2. L. Grünhaupt,
  3. T. Klein,
  4. F. Levy-Bertrand,
  5. O. Dupré,
  6. M. Calvo,
  7. F. Valenti,
  8. P. Winkel,
  9. F. Friedrich,
  10. W. Wernsdorfer,
  11. A. V. Ustinov,
  12. H. Rotzinger,
  13. A. Monfardini,
  14. M. V. Fistul,
  15. and I. M. Pop
The introduction of crystalline defects or dopants can give rise to so-called „dirty superconductors“, characterized by reduced coherence length and quasiparticle mean free
path. In particular, granular superconductors such as Granular Aluminum (GrAl), consisting of remarkably uniform grains connected by Josephson contacts have attracted interest since the sixties thanks to their rich phase diagram and practical advantages, like increased critical temperature, critical field, and kinetic inductance. Here we report the measurement and modeling of circuit quantum electrodynamics properties of GrAl microwave resonators in a wide frequency range, up to the spectral superconducting gap. Interestingly, we observe self-Kerr coefficients ranging from 10−2 Hz to 105 Hz, within an order of magnitude from analytic calculations based on GrAl microstructure. This amenable nonlinearity, combined with the relatively high quality factors in the 105 range, open new avenues for applications in quantum information processing and kinetic inductance detectors.

Driving forbidden transitions in the fluxonium artificial atom

  1. U. Vool,
  2. A. Kou,
  3. W. C. Smith,
  4. N. E. Frattini,
  5. K. Serniak,
  6. P. Reinhold,
  7. I. M. Pop,
  8. S. Shankar,
  9. L. Frunzio,
  10. S. M. Girvin,
  11. and M. H. Devoret
Atomic systems display a rich variety of quantum dynamics due to the different possible symmetries obeyed by the atoms. These symmetries result in selection rules that have been essential
for the quantum control of atomic systems. Superconducting artificial atoms are mainly governed by parity symmetry. Its corresponding selection rule limits the types of quantum systems that can be built using electromagnetic circuits at their optimal coherence operation points („sweet spots“). Here, we use third-order nonlinear coupling between the artificial atom and its readout resonator to drive transitions forbidden by the parity selection rule for linear coupling to microwave radiation. A Lambda-type system emerges from these newly accessible transitions, implemented here in the fluxonium artificial atom coupled to its „antenna“ resonator. We demonstrate coherent manipulation of the fluxonium artificial atom at its sweet spot by stimulated Raman transitions. This type of transition enables the creation of new quantum operations, such as the control and readout of physically protected artificial atoms.

Simultaneous monitoring of fluxonium qubits in a waveguide

  1. A. Kou,
  2. W. C. Smith,
  3. U. Vool,
  4. I. M. Pop,
  5. K. M. Sliwa,
  6. M. H. Hatridge,
  7. L. Frunzio,
  8. and M. H. Devoret
Most quantum-error correcting codes assume that the decoherence of each physical qubit is independent of the decoherence of any other physical qubit. We can test the validity of this
assumption in an experimental setup where a microwave feedline couples to multiple qubits by examining correlations between the qubits. Here, we investigate the correlations between fluxonium qubits located in a single waveguide. Despite being in a wide-bandwidth electromagnetic environment, the qubits have measured relaxation times in excess of 100 us. We use cascaded Josephson parametric amplifiers to measure the quantum jumps of two fluxonium qubits simultaneously. No correlations are observed between the relaxation times of the two fluxonium qubits, which indicates that the sources of relaxation are local to each qubit. Our architecture can easily be scaled to monitor larger numbers of qubits.

Fluxonium-resonator system in the nonperturbative regime

  1. W. C. Smith,
  2. A. Kou,
  3. U. Vool,
  4. I. M. Pop,
  5. L. Frunzio,
  6. R. J. Schoelkopf,
  7. and M. H. Devoret
We present a method for calculating the low-energy spectra of superconducting circuits with arbitrarily strong anharmonicity and coupling. As an example, we numerically diagonalize
the Hamiltonian of a fluxonium qubit inductively coupled to a readout resonator. Our method treats both the anharmonicity of the Hamiltonian and the coupling between qubit and readout modes exactly. Calculated spectra are compared to measured spectroscopy data for this fluxonium-resonator system. We observe excellent quantitative agreement between theory and experiment that is not possible with a purely perturbative approach.

Planar Superconducting Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

  1. Z.K. Minev,
  2. I.M. Pop,
  3. and M.H. Devoret
We introduce a microwave circuit architecture for quantum signal processing combining design principles borrowed from high-Q 3D resonators in the quantum regime and from planar structures
fabricated with standard lithography. The resulting ‚2.5D‘ whispering-gallery mode resonators store 98% of their energy in vacuum. We have measured internal quality factors above 3 million at the single photon level and have used the device as a materials characterization platform to place an upper bound on the surface resistance of thin film aluminum of less than 250n{\Omega}.

Demonstrating a Driven Reset Protocol of a Superconducting Qubit

  1. K. Geerlings,
  2. Z. Leghtas,
  3. I. M. Pop,
  4. S. Shankar,
  5. L. Frunzio,
  6. R. J. Schoelkopf,
  7. M. Mirrahimi,
  8. and M. H. Devoret
Qubit reset is crucial at the start of and during quantum information algorithms. We present the experimental demonstration of a practical method to force qubits into their ground state,
based on driving certain qubit and cavity transitions. Our protocol, nicknamed DDROP (Double Drive Reset of Population) is tested on a superconducting transmon qubit in a 3D cavity. Using a new method for measuring population, we show that we can prepare the ground state with a fidelity of at least 99.5 % in less than 3 microseconds; faster times and higher fidelity are predicted upon parameter optimization.