The introduction of crystalline defects or dopants can give rise to so-called „dirty superconductors“, characterized by reduced coherence length and quasiparticle mean free
path. In particular, granular superconductors such as Granular Aluminum (GrAl), consisting of remarkably uniform grains connected by Josephson contacts have attracted interest since the sixties thanks to their rich phase diagram and practical advantages, like increased critical temperature, critical field, and kinetic inductance. Here we report the measurement and modeling of circuit quantum electrodynamics properties of GrAl microwave resonators in a wide frequency range, up to the spectral superconducting gap. Interestingly, we observe self-Kerr coefficients ranging from 10−2 Hz to 105 Hz, within an order of magnitude from analytic calculations based on GrAl microstructure. This amenable nonlinearity, combined with the relatively high quality factors in the 105 range, open new avenues for applications in quantum information processing and kinetic inductance detectors.
Interfacing photonic and solid-state qubits within a hybrid quantum architecture offers a promising route towards large scale distributed quantum computing. In that respect, hybrid
quantum systems combining circuit QED with ions doped into solids are an attractive platform. There, the ions serve as coherent memory elements and reversible conversion elements of microwave to optical qubits. Among many possible spin-doped solids, erbium ions offer the unique opportunity of a coherent conversion of microwave photons into the telecom C-band at 1.54μm employed for long distance communication. In our work, we perform a time-resolved electron spin resonance study of an Er3+:Y2SiO5 spin ensemble at milli-Kelvin temperatures and demonstrate multimode storage and retrieval of up to 16 coherent microwave pulses. The memory efficiency is measured to be 10−4 at the coherence time of T2=5.6μs.
We report on hybrid circuit QED experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y2SiO5
crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y2SiO5 sample. We demonstrate the successful integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.
We have investigated dielectric losses in amorphous SiO thin films under operating conditions of superconducting qubits (mK temperatures and low microwave powers). For this purpose,
we have developed a broadband measurement setup employing multiplexed lumped element resonators using a broadband power combiner and a low-noise amplifier. The measured temperature and power dependences of the dielectric losses are in good agreement with those predicted for atomic two-level tunneling systems (TLS). By measuring the losses at different frequencies, we found that the TLS density of states is energy dependent. This had not been seen previously in loss measurements. These results contribute to a better understanding of decoherence effects in superconducting qubits and suggest a possibility to minimize TLS-related decoherence by reducing the qubit operation frequency.
Interfacing photonic and solid-state qubits within a hybrid quantum
architecture offers a promising route towards large scale distributed quantum
computing. Ideal candidates for coherent
qubit interconversion are optically
active spins magnetically coupled to a superconducting resonator. We report on
a cavity QED experiment with magnetically anisotropic Er3+:Y2SiO5 crystals and
demonstrate strong coupling of rare-earth spins to a lumped element resonator.
In addition, the electron spin resonance and relaxation dynamics of the erbium
spins are detected via direct microwave absorption, without aid of a cavity.