Quasiparticle dynamics in granular aluminum close to the superconductor to insulator transition

  1. Lukas Grünhaupt,
  2. Nataliya Maleeva,
  3. Sebastian T. Skacel,
  4. Martino Calvo,
  5. Florence Levy-Bertrand,
  6. Alexey V. Ustinov,
  7. Hannes Rotzinger,
  8. Alessandro Monfardini,
  9. Gianluigi Catelani,
  10. and Ioan M. Pop
Superconducting high kinetic inductance elements constitute a valuable resource for quantum circuit design and millimeter-wave detection. Granular aluminum (GrAl) in the superconducting
regime is a particularly interesting material since it has already shown a kinetic inductance in the range of nH/◻ and its deposition is compatible with conventional Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junction fabrication. We characterize microwave resonators fabricated from GrAl with a room temperature resistivity of 4×103μΩ⋅cm, which is a factor of 3 below the superconductor to insulator transition, showing a kinetic inductance fraction close to unity. The measured internal quality factors are on the order of Qi=105 in the single photon regime, and we demonstrate that non-equilibrium quasiparticles (QP) constitute the dominant loss mechanism. We extract QP relaxation times in the range of 1 s and we observe QP bursts every ∼20 s. The current level of coherence of GrAl resonators makes them attractive for integration in quantum devices, while it also evidences the need to reduce the density of non-equilibrium QPs.

Suppressing relaxation in superconducting qubits by quasiparticle pumping

  1. Simon Gustavsson,
  2. Fei Yan,
  3. Gianluigi Catelani,
  4. Jonas Bylander,
  5. Archana Kamal,
  6. Jeffrey Birenbaum,
  7. David Hover,
  8. Danna Rosenberg,
  9. Gabriel Samach,
  10. Adam P. Sears,
  11. Steven J. Weber,
  12. Jonilyn L. Yoder,
  13. John Clarke,
  14. Andrew J. Kerman,
  15. Fumiki Yoshihara,
  16. Yasunobu Nakamura,
  17. Terry P. Orlando,
  18. and William D. Oliver
Dynamical error suppression techniques are commonly used to improve coherence in quantum systems. They reduce dephasing errors by applying control pulses designed to reverse erroneous
coherent evolution driven by environmental noise. However, such methods cannot correct for irreversible processes such as energy relaxation. In this work, we investigate a complementary, stochastic approach to reducing errors: instead of deterministically reversing the unwanted qubit evolution, we use control pulses to shape the noise environment dynamically. In the context of superconducting qubits, we implement a pumping sequence to reduce the number of unpaired electrons (quasiparticles) in close proximity to the device. We report a 70% reduction in the quasiparticle density, resulting in a threefold enhancement in qubit relaxation times, and a comparable reduction in coherence variability.

Measurement and Control of Quasiparticle Dynamics in a Superconducting Qubit

  1. Chen Wang,
  2. Yvonne Y. Gao,
  3. Ioan M. Pop,
  4. Uri Vool,
  5. Chris Axline,
  6. Teresa Brecht,
  7. Reinier W. Heeres,
  8. Luigi Frunzio,
  9. Michel H. Devoret,
  10. Gianluigi Catelani,
  11. Leonid I. Glazman,
  12. and Robert J. Schoelkopf
Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been
taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic field to protect the integrity of superconductivity. Surprisingly, here we show vortices can dramatically improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we directly demonstrate the power-law decay characteristics of the canonical quasiparticle recombination process, and show quantization of quasiparticle trapping rate due to individual vortices. Each vortex in our aluminium film shows a quasiparticle „trapping power“ of 0.067±0.005 cm2/s, enough to dominate over the vanishingly weak recombination in a modern transmon qubit. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of quantum circuits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.

Non-Poissonian Quantum Jumps of a Fluxonium Qubit due to Quasiparticle Excitations

  1. Uri Vool,
  2. Ioan M. Pop,
  3. Katrina Sliwa,
  4. Baleegh Abdo,
  5. Chen Wang,
  6. Teresa Brecht,
  7. Yvonne Y. Gao,
  8. Shyam Shankar,
  9. Michael Hatridge,
  10. Gianluigi Catelani,
  11. Mazyar Mirrahimi,
  12. Luigi Frunzio,
  13. Robert J. Schoelkopf,
  14. Leonid I. Glazman,
  15. and Michel H. Devoret
As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, non-equilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant
limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum non-demolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than T1, using a quantum limited amplifier (Josephson Parametric Converter). The quantum jumps statistics switches between the expected Poisson distribution and a non-Poissonian one, indicating large relative fluctuations in the quasiparticle population, on time scales varying from seconds to hours. This dynamics can be modified controllably by injecting quasiparticles or by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices by cooling down in magnetic field.